Ex-battleship SETTSU and ex-destroyer YAKAZE were converted to function as target ships for IJN carrier aircraft bombing and torpedo training. HAKACHI was the IJN's only purpose built target ship. Two other vessels, OHAMA and OSASHI, were laid down as target ships, but OHAMA was converted to an escort vessel while still on the ways and work on OSASHI was suspended near war's end when she was almost complete.
Bob Hackett is a military historian and researcher. He resides in the United States.
Mr. Sander Kingsepp, a native of Estonia, is also a military historian and researcher. A talented linguist, Sander's translations of Japanese source materials have greatly enhanced these TROMs.
Mr. Peter Cundall is a maritime historian and researcher who specializes in merchant ships. He resides in Australia.
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