(HARUNA MARU, sistership of MANKO MARU, prewar)

Tabular Record of Movement

© 2018 Gilbert Casse, Berend van der Wal and Peter Cundall

1 November 1922:
Yokohama. Laid down by Yokohama Dock K.K. shipyard as a 1,502-tons refrigerated cargo ship for Kuzuhara Inohira.

10 February 1923:
Launched and named MANKO MARU. [1]

14 March 1923:
Completed with Gross Registered Tonnage (GRT) and Net Registered Tonnage (NRT) respectively of 1,502-tons and 817-tons. Registered at Yokohama, Tokyo Prefecture. [2]

13 January 1925:
Her owner is restyled to Kuzuhara Reizo K.K.

Her NRT is changed to 815-tons. [2]

29 October 1926:
Her ownership is changed to Yokohama Senkyo K.K.

21 December 1926:
Her ownership is changed to Nichiro Gyogyo K.K.

Mid-April 1928:
Carries out her first fishing campaign. Harvests off Sakhalin.

Early-June 1928:
Carries out her second fishing campaign. Harvests in Olyutol Sea (Off Siberian coast).

End-July 1928:
Carries out her third fishing campaign. Harvests in Okhotsk Sea (West Kamchatka).

Early-September 1928:
Carries out her fourth fishing campaign. Harvests off Kamikawa, Hokkaido.

Mid-October 1928 ~ End February 1929:
Hakodate, Hokkaido. Undergoes refrigeration equipment maintenance and repairs.

23 April 1937:
Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 196. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

18 May ~ 12 July 1937:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

24 June 1937:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

Her GRT and NRT are respectively changed to 1,503-tons and 815-tons. [2]

7 April 1938:
Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 196. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

13 May ~ 11 July 1938:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

30 June 1938:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

3 May 1940:
Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K obtains a temporary ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. ‘Futsu 11th’. Approval period: 3 May ~ 15 August 1940.

Operation areas include: (1) High seas between 51° N and 58° N (2) Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin.

11 May ~ 14 July 1940:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

27 June 1940:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

E May 1941 ~ 24 July 1941:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

12 December 1941:
Requisitioned by the IJA as an Army transport with allotted number No. 755.

19 July 1942:
At 1900, departs Mako, Pescadores in convoy No. 236 also consisting of KUNISHIMA, KENZAN, GENOA, ISUZU, IKOMA, TAKASAGO (1,116 GRT), ARABIA, MANSHU, IKUSHIMA, KAISHO, UMEKAWA, KIYO, NISHIYAMA, HIBARI, MADRAS and CHICAGO MARUs, DAIGEN MARU No. 3, BANEI MARU No. 7 and one unidentified ship escorted by auxiliary gunboat DELHI MARU.

24 July 1942:
At 1200, arrives at Mutsure.

31 July 1942:
Derequisitioned by the IJA and released to her owners.

5 November 1942:
Registered by the IJN as a general chartered ship (B-AF) (stores ship) attached to the Yokosuka Naval District.

6 November 1942:
Navy Lt Satomi Tetsujiro is appointed CO.

25 November 1942:
Departs Yokosuka.

28 November 1942:
Arrives at Chichi Jima, Ogasawara Gunto (Bonins).

1 December 1942:
Departs Chichi Jima.

7 December 1942:
Arrives at Truk, Central Carolines.

14 December 1942:
Departs Truk in a convoy also consisting of stores ships MINATO, MITSU and TAKUNAN MARUs with an unknown escort.

19 December 1942:
At 0800, arrives at Rabaul, New Britain.

24 December 1942:
Her ownership is changed to Teikoku Suisan Tosei K.K.

6 January 1943:
Departs Rabaul.

12 January 1943:
Arrives at Ponape, Carolines.

16 January 1943:
Departs Ponape.

27 January 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

17 February 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

4 March 1943:
Arrives at Truk and departs there at 0730, in a convoy also consisting of KIKUKAWA MARU escorted by minesweeper W-15.

8 March 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

12 March 1943:
Departs Rabaul possibly escorted by minesweeper W-20.

13 March 1943:
Arrives at Kavieng, New Ireland.

14 March 1943:
Departs Kavieng.

21 March 1943:
Arrives at Saipan, Marianas from Truk in a convoy with auxiliary transports SEIKAI and KENYO MARUs.

24 March 1943:
Departs Saipan in a convoy with SEIKAI MARU with unknown escort.

2 April 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

26 April 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

29 April 1943:
Arrives at Chichi Jima.

30 April 1943:
Departs Chichi Jima.

4 May 1943:
Arrives at Saipan with auxiliary netlayer KOGI MARU.

10 May 1943:
Departs Saipan escorted by auxiliary minesweeper SEKI MARU No. 3.

11 May 1943:
Arrives at Omiya Jima (Guam), Marianas and departs later this day.

14 May 1943:
Arrives at Truk (ETA 1200).

24 May 1943:
Departs Truk in convoy No. 1242 also consisting of IJN auxiliary transport NANKAI MARU No. 2 escorted by subchaser CH-33.

29 May 1943:
At 1630, arrives at Rabaul.

8 June 1943:
Departs Rabaul for Truk in convoy No. 2082 with auxiliary ammunition transport HIDE MARU escorted by destroyer ASANAGI and one unidentified warship.

11 June 1943:
At 0104, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Creed C. Burlingame’s (USNA ’27) USS SILVERSIDES (SS-236), running on the surface, visually fires four torpedoes at HIDE MARU carrying empty drums, scrap iron and ashes of 236 war dead. Burlingame claims three hits. HIDE MARU bursts into flames. The escorts open fire and shells hit near USS SILVERSIDES. Burlingame fires a stern torpedo at an escort that breaks off pursuit to avoid being hit while the submarine crash dives. The escorts then mount a severe, though unsuccessful, depth charge attack. At about 0540, HIDE MARU sinks at 02-45N, 152-06E with only one crewman KIA.

Auxiliary patrol boat OSEI MARU is ordered to proceed to the disaster site to check if HIDE MARU is still afloat.

12 June 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

19 June 1943:
At 0600, departs Truk in convoy No. 4619 with AKAGISAN MARU escorted by torpedo boat OTORI and auxiliary minesweeper FUMI MARU No. 2.

24 June 1943:
Arrives at Saipan. Auxiliary minesweeper FUMI MARU NO. 2 detaches.

30 June 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

4 July 1943:
Transfers to Yokohama.

5 July ~ 5 August 1943:
Undergoes repairs at Asano dock.

6 August 1943:
Transfers to Yokosuka.

21 August 1943:
Departs Yokosuka in convoy No. 3821B also consisting of auxiliary storeship CHIYO MARU escorted by auxiliary subchasers CHa-28 and CHa-46 and auxiliary minesweeper HAKATA MARU No. 6 (or No. 7). The convoy sails at 8.5 knots.

24 August 1943:
Arrives at Chichi Jima.

25 August 1943:
Departs Chichi Jima.

29 August 1943:
Arrives at Saipan.

1 September 1943:
Departs Saipan.

4 September 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

14 September 1943:
Departs Truk in convoy No. 1143 also consisting of auxiliary transport OKITSU MARU escorted by destroyer SAMIDARE and auxiliary gunboats CHOKO MARU No. 2 GO and CHOUN MARU. The convoy sails at 10 knots.

19 September 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

7 October 1943:
Departs Rabaul.

10 October 1943:
About 0100, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral ) Norvell G. Ward's (USNA '35) USS GUARDFISH (SS-217) attacks the stores ship with a spread of four torpedoes at 01-04N, 146-00E but no hits are scored.

15 October 1943:
Arrives at Davao, Mindanao, Philippines with auxiliary stores ship HAYASAKI.

23 October 1943:
Departs Davao.

31 October 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

2 November 1943:
75 North American B-25 "Mitchell" medium bombers of the 5th Air Force's 3rd, 38th and 345th Bomb Groups, escorted by 70 Lockeed P-38 "Lightning" fighters raid airfields and Simpson Harbor, Rabaul. MANKO MARU is sunk with unknown casualties. The ship is near missed by bombs aft that split her stern open and she sinks with bow in the air quite quickly. HAYASAKI is lightly damaged in the raid as are CruDiv 5’s HAGURO and MYOKO, destroyer SHIRATSUYU, sub tender CHOGEI, transport HOKUYO MARU, repair ship YAMABIKO MARU, ammunition ship ONOE MARU, minesweeper W-26 and many others.

Authors' Notes:
[1] Not to be confused with auxiliary transport MANKO MARU (4,471 GRT, ‘34).

[2] NRT is a ship's cargo volume capacity expressed in "register tons", one of which equals to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). It is calculated by subtracting non-revenue-earning spaces i.e. spaces not available for carrying cargo, for example engine rooms, fuel tanks and crew quarters, from the ship's gross register tonnage (GRT). Net register tonnage (NRT) is not a measure of the weight of the ship or its cargo, and should not be confused with terms such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

Thanks go to Gengoro S. Toda of Japan.

- Berend van der Wal, Gilbert Casse and Peter Cundall.

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