(Type B1 submarine - colorized photo by Irootoko Jr)

IJN Submarine I-19:
Tabular Record of Movement

2001-2014 Bob Hackett & Sander Kingsepp
Revision 6

15 March 1938:
Laid down at Mitsubishi Kobe Yard as Submarine No. 39.

16 September 1939:
Launched and re-numbered I-19.

31 January 1941:
Cdr (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Narahara Seigo (48)(former CO of I-6) is appointed the Chief Equipping Officer (CEO).

28 April 1941:
Completed and attached to Yokosuka Naval District. Cdr Narahara Seigo is the Commanding Officer.

I-19 is assigned to the Sixth Fleet (Submarines) in Rear Adm Sato Tsutomu's SubRon 1 in Captain Imaizumi Yoshijiro's SubDiv 2 with I-18 and I-20.

11 November 1941: Operation "Z":
Reassigned to Captain Imaizumi Yoshijiro's (44) Advance Force as the flagship of SubDiv 2.

20 November 1941:
Departs Yokosuka for the Hawaiian Islands, carrying a Watanabe E9W1 Type 96 "Slim" floatplane. Captain Imaizumi is embarked on I-19. The Submarine Advance Group under Imaizumi is subordinated directly to the First Air Fleet's Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi aboard his flagship, carrier AKAGI.

23 November 1941:
At 1330, arrives at Hitokappu Bay, Etorofu.

26 November 1941:
Departs Hitokappu for the Hawaiian Islands, leading the three-strong Patrol Unit (I-19, I-21 and I-23), assigned to the patrol ahead of Nagumo's Carrier Striking Force.

27 November 1941:
En route I-19 and I-21 refuel from a fleet oiler.

28 November 1941:
I-19 receives a blinker warning from AKAGI about Soviet freighters en route from San Francisco to Vladivostok.

30 November 1941:
I-23 lags behind the main group after losing one shaft. AKAGI questions I-19 about the location of I-23.

2 December 1941:
The coded signal "Niitakayama nobore (Climb Mt. Niitaka) 1208" is received from the Combined Fleet. It signifies that hostilities will commence on 8 December (Japan time). Mt. Niitaka, located in Formosa (now Taiwan), is then the highest point in the Japanese Empire.

7 December 1941: The Attack on Pearl Harbor:
I-19 patrols 110 miles NE of Oahu during the air attack on Pearl Harbor.

After the air attack, the submarines of the Advance Group serve as navigation aids for crippled Japanese aircraft returning to their carriers. After 1040, SubDiv 2 is detached from the Kido Butai and subordinated directly to Headquarters, Sixth Fleet. All three submarines are deployed to the area 300 miles E of Maui.

9 December 1941:
I-6 reports sighting a LEXINGTON-class aircraft carrier and two cruisers off Oahu heading ENE. Vice Admiral Shimizu in KATORI at Kwajalein orders all of SubRon 1's boats, except the Special Attack Force, to pursue and sink the carrier.

10 December 1941:
I-19 is twice attacked by carrier planes, but receives no damage.

14 December 1941:
After the unsuccessful pursuit of the carrier, I-19 and the other submarines joined by I-10 and I-26 are ordered to sail eastwards to the West Coast of the United States and attack American shipping.

The Imperial General Headquarters orders the IJN to shell the U.S. West Coast. Vice Admiral Shimizu issues a detailed order on the targets. I-15, I-9, I-10, I-17, I-19, I-21, I-23, I-25 and I-26 are each to fire 30 shells on the night of 25 December. Rear Admiral Sato, aboard I-9, is charged to execute the order.

21 December 1941:
The submerged I-19 fires a torpedo at an unescorted Allied merchant (in all likelihood the 4,200-ton Norwegian freighter PANAMA EXPRESS), but misses. I-19 surfaces and commences a brief chase, but fails to catch up with the Norwegian vessel. PANAMA EXPRESS later reports a simultaneous torpedo attack by two submarines.

22 December 1941:
Off Point Arguello, 55 miles north of Santa Barbara. I-19 chases 10,763-ton Standard Oil Company tanker H. M. STOREY for about an hour and then fires two torpedoes with 2-second intervals. Just then a third torpedo starts a "hot run" and it has to be fired as well. All the torpedoes miss. The tanker escapes. Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku, CINC, Combined Fleet, postpones the Christmas Eve attack until 27 December. [1]

24 December 1941:
At 0625, the submerged I-19 attacks the 2,146-ton lumber schooner BARBARA OLSON (ex-CORRALES) en route to San Diego, firing a single torpedo. It passes below the ship and explodes 100 ft away, causing no damage. The explosion is observed from the Navy subchaser USS AMETHYST (PYC-3).

Off Point Fermin, near San Pedro. At 1040 Cdr Narahara attacks the McCormick Steamship Company's 5,698-ton lumber carrier ABSAROKA, firing two torpedoes. The first one misses, but the second strikes ABSAROKA's No. 5 hold starboard, throwing three sailors into the sea. One seaman is crushed under the shifting timber.

Within minutes, the ship settles up to her main deck and the lifeboats are lowered. USS AMETHYST, aided by several Army bombers, arrives on the scene and drops a pattern of 32 depth charges. ABSAROKA, kept afloat by her cargo, is reboarded and beached near Fort MacArthur.

Later that day Cdr Narahara reports the sinking of a medium-sized American transport.

27 December 1941:
Most of the I-boats off the coast have depleted their fuel reserves. Vice Admiral Shimizu cancels the shelling.

4 January 1942:
E of Lahaina Roads. At 1720 (I), I-19 tries to launch her E9W1 "Slim" floatplane on a night reconnaissance over Pearl Harbor, but a faulty valve causes her catapult to malfunction. As the "Slim" is heaved alongside I-19, an enemy patrol craft is sighted. The submarine is also spotted and the American vessel tries to contact her with a blinker gun.

Cdr Narahara dives simultaneously with the start of his floatplane and spends the next hour dodging the enemy vessel. Two hours and 40 minutes later, the E9W1 returns and reports sighting a carrier, nine cruisers and six smaller warships in Pearl Harbor.

January 1942: Operation "K-1" - Flying Boat Attack on Pearl Harbor:
The Naval General Staff develops a plan to raid Pearl Harbor using two large Type 2 four-engined Kawanishi H8K "Emily" flying boats. The plan calls for the planes to depart Wotje in the Marshalls and fly to the French Frigate Shoal in the Hawaiian Islands where they are to be refueled by I-class submarines.

Headquarters, 6th Fleet considers shelling Johnston and Palmyra Islands with I-15 and I-19, but finally rejects the idea.

7 January 1942:
I-19 is twice attacked by Consolidated PBY "Catalina" seaplanes.

8 January 1942:
I-19 is again attacked and chased by PBY seaplanes.

15 January 1942:
Arrives at Kwajalein. [2]

1 February 1942:
Vice Admiral (later Fleet Admiral) William F. Halsey Jr's Task Force 8 (USS ENTERPRISE, CV-6) raids Kwajalein and Wotje, Marshall Islands. ENTERPRISE's Douglas SBD "Dauntlesses" of VB-6 and VS-6 make the first attack followed by a second wave of TBD "Devastator" torpedo planes of VT-6.

Two hours after the attack, Sixth Fleet HQ orders SubRon 1's I-9, I-15, I-17, I-19, I-23, I-25 and I-26 to put to sea and intercept the enemy carriers.

3 February 1942:
I-15, I-19, I-23 and I -26 are recalled to participate in Operation K-1.

5 February 1942: Operation "K-1" - The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor:
At Kwajalein. Five submarines are selected to participate in Operation K-1. I-19, I-15 and I-26's hangar space is fitted with six fuel tanks each to store aviation fuel. The objective of the attack is to bomb Pearl's "Ten-Ten Dock" and disrupt ship repair activities. I-9 is assigned to take up station midway between Wotje and the Shoals and act as a radio beacon for two Kawanishi H8K1 "Emily" flying boat bombers. I-19, I-15 and I-26 are to refuel the flying boats at the Shoals. I-23 is to stand by 10 miles south of Pearl Harbor, provide weather reports and act in an air-sea rescue capacity. The submarines depart for their stations.

20 February 1942:
Departs Kwajalein on her second war patrol in an attempt to intercept TF 11 off Rabaul.

4 March 1942:
I-15 and I-19 arrive at the Shoals. I-26 is in reserve and I-9 is at Wotje as a radio beacon. After dark the "Emilys" arrive, refuel and take off for Pearl Harbor.

5 March 1942:
Seven hours after departing French Frigate Shoals, the flying boats bomb Honolulu, but achieve no significant results and return to the Marshall Islands.

21 March 1942:
I-19, I-15 and I-26 arrive at Yokosuka for overhaul.

18 April 1942: The First Bombing of Japan:
Vice Admiral (later Fleet Admiral) William F. Halsey's Task Force 16.2's USS HORNET (CV-8), cruisers, destroyers and an oiler accompanied by Task Force 16.1's ENTERPRISE (CV-6) and other cruisers, destroyers and an oiler approach to within 668 nautical miles of Japan. Led by Lt Col (later General/Medal of Honor) James H. Doolittle, 16 Army B-25 "Mitchell" twin-engine bombers of the 17th Bomb Group take off from HORNET and strike targets in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya and Kobe.

At Yokosuka, the I-19, I-15, I-25 and I-26 are in drydock. A B-25 damages light carrier RYUHO undergoing conversion from former submarine depot ship TAIGEI in a nearby drydock.

15 May 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for Ominato, northern Honshu, in company of I-17.

17 May 1942:
Arrives at Ominato.

19 May 1942:
Departs Ominato.

20 May 1942:
Reassigned to Northern Force.

26 May 1942: Operation "MI" - The Attack on Midway:
Reconnoiters Nikolski Bay and Nikolski village, SW Umnak, in search of US military installations.

After sundown I-19 advances to the area N of Bogoslof (Agasagook) Island to launch her floatplane. Suddenly, her lookouts sight an American destroyer. Cdr Narahara crash dives. There is no time to disassemble the plane and it is damaged beyond repair.

29 May 1942:
I-19 conducts a submerged reconnaissance of Dutch Harbor.

30 May 1942:
Conducts the second submerged reconnaissance of Dutch Harbor, then proceeds to Unalaska-Umnak area.

18 June 1942:
Reconnoiters Makushin Bay on the west coast of Unalaska Island.

19 June 1942:
Reconnoiters Otter Point, Umnak, where the presence of numerous enemy troops is established.

29 June 1942:
Departs her patrol area. Reassigned to Advance Force.

7 July 1942:
I-19 arrives at Yokosuka. Drydocked for repairs.

15 July 1942:
LtCdr (promoted Cdr 1 November; Rear Admiral, posthumously) Kinashi Takakazu (51)(former CO of I-162) is appointed the CO. [3]

7 August 1942 - 9 February 1943: American Operation "Watchtower" - The Invasion of Guadalcanal, British Solomon Islands:
Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Richmond K. Turner's Amphibious Task Force 62, covered by Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Frank J. Fletcher's Task Force 61 and Rear Admiral (later Admiral) John S. McCain's Task Force 63's land-based aircraft, lands Maj Gen (later Gen/Commandant) Alexander A. Vandergrift's 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal opening a seven-month campaign to take the island.

15 August 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for the Solomons on her fourth war patrol at 0930, carrying an E14Y1 "Glen" floatplane.

23 August 1942: Operation "KA": The Destruction of the American Fleet and the Recapture of Guadalcanal:
Vice Admiral Kondo Nobutake's (former CO of KONGO) Second Fleet, Advanced Force's CruDiv's 4 and 5, CarDiv 11's seaplane tender CHITOSE, DesRon 4's light cruiser YURA and nine destroyers arrive off Truk from Japan. Kondo joins Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi's Third Fleet, Main Body, CarDiv 1's SHOKAKU, ZUIKAKU, CarDiv 2's RYUJO, BatDiv 11, CruDiv 7 and 8 and Desron 10's light cruiser NAGARA and destroyers for operations in the Solomons.

I-19 enters an area controlled by the enemy. So as not to jeopardize the mission, I-19 and her sister submarines are ordered to attack only supply ships or capital ships. At 0725, I-19 is sighted by Lt (later Vice Admiral) Turner F. Caldwell, Jr. from VS-5, at 07-30S, 162-15E, proceeding surfaced at high speed on course 180. Caldwell attacks the submarine, but no visible damage is observed.

24 August 1942: The Battle of the Eastern Solomons:
Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher's Task Force 61's USS SARATOGA (CV-3) and ENTERPRISE launch aircraft that find and sink light carrier RYUJO. In turn, SHOKAKU and ZUIKAKU launch aircraft that find and damage ENTERPRISE. That evening, aircraft from SARATOGA damage CHITOSE.

I-19 begins regular underwater patrols from 0630 to 1930.

25 August 1942:
Around 1600, LtCdr Kinashi surfaces only to discover an American cruiser escorted by a destroyer and several aircraft. He dives immediately and starts an attack approach, but the distance is too great and Kinashi cannot reach a firing position.

26 August 1942:
200 miles SE of Guadalcanal. At 1425, while running submerged, the sound operator reports contact with several approaching ships, including an aircraft carrier, battleship, cruiser and several destroyers. The Task Force, including USS WASP (CV-7), is heading north, but once again Kinashi's approach fails.

28 August 1942.
I-19's E14Y1 "Glen" floatplane reconnoiters Graciosa Bay on Ndeni Island, Solomons. The pilot reports the presence of a destroyer and six flying boats.

31 August 1942:
Starting at 1815, I-19 shells Graciosa Bay, Ndeni for about 10 minutes.

15 September 1942:
At 0950, while running submerged, the soundman reports a contact with many heavy screws at 12-18S, 164-15E. LtCdr Kinashi orders I-19 to periscope depth. He makes a sweep with his 'scope but no ships are in sight.

250 miles SE of Guadalcanal. Captain (later Admiral) Forrest P. Sherman's USS WASP and Captain Charles P. Mason's (later Rear Admiral) HORNET (CV-8) are escorting a reinforcement convoy of six transports carrying the 7th Marine Regiment from Espiritu Santo to reinforce Guadalcanal. The carriers are steaming in sight of each other about 8 miles apart. Each carrier forms the nucleus of a task force. Captain George H. Fort's (later Rear Admiral) battleship USS NORTH CAROLINA (BB-55) is with the HORNET task force to the NE of the WASP force.

At 1050, Kinashi raises his periscope again. This time he sees a carrier, a heavy cruiser and several destroyers (Rear Admiral Leigh Noyes' Task Force 18) bearing 045T at 9 miles. Kinashi estimates the task force's course at 330 and begins a slow approach. The Americans, zigzagging at 16 knots, change course to WNW. Then at 1120, the target group again changes course -this time to SSE. WASP makes a slow left turn into the wind to launch and recover her aircraft - and heads toward the I-19.

LtCdr Kinashi estimates that his target is on course 130 degrees making 12 knots. At 1145, from 50 degrees starboard, he fires a spread of six Type 95 oxygen-propelled torpedoes at the enemy carrier from 985 yards. Two or possibly three hit the WASP and start an uncontrollable fire.

HORNET force continues a right turn to a 280 degree base course. Suddenly, an alarm is heard the tactical radio speakers from USS LANSDOWNE (DD-486) in the WASP's screen "... torpedo headed for formation, course 080!"

At 1152, a torpedo from I-19's salvo hits NORTH CAROLINA in her port bow abreast of her forward main battery turret. The blast holes the side protection below the armor belt and NORTH CAROLINA takes on a thousand tons of water. She takes on a five-degree list but counter flooding quickly levels her and she makes 25 knots. [4]

At 1154, a torpedo hits destroyer O'BRIEN's (DD-415) port quarter and another just misses HORNET. [5]

I-19 dives to 265 feet under the carrier's wake. The first depth charge explodes six minutes after the last torpedo hit. Soon the depth charges were exploding all around. American destroyers try to surround I-19 to attack together and finish her off. They rain down 30 depth charges.

At noon, WASP's avgas tanks explode. At 1515, two cruisers and destroyers abandon WASP and withdraw to the south. At 1520, Captain Sherman orders "Abandon Ship". The carrier is scuttled by five torpedoes from LANSDOWNE and sinks by the bow at about 2100. WASP suffers 193 killed and 367 wounded.

25 September 1942:
Arrives at Truk.

20 September 1942:
Departs her patrol area, heading for Truk.

5 October 1942:
Departs Truk for the New Caledonia area on her fifth war patrol, carrying a E14Y1 "Glen" floatplane.

19 October 1942:
The E14Y1 "Glen" from I-19 conducts a recce flight over Noumea. When hoisted aboard, the floatplane is damaged beyond repair.

I-19 patrols in Noumea-New Caledonia area until 12 November.

16 November 1942:
Truk. Vice Admiral Komatsu convenes a meeting of his submarine captains. He announces that the Sixth Fleet has been ordered by Admiral Yamamoto, CINC, Combined Fleet to organize a supply system for the IJA's 17th Army garrison on Guadalcanal.

22 November 1942:
Departs Shortland on her first supply run to Guadalcanal in company of I-17.

24 November 1942:
Arrives at Kamimbo Bay, Guadalcanal with I-17. The unloading of supplies is soon aborted because of an air attack.

27 November 1942:
Returns to Shortland, then departs for Truk.

30 November 1942:
Arrives at Truk.

22 December 1942:
I-19 delivers her cargo, this time packed in floating rubber containers which are released underwater to escape the detection of the submarine by the surface craft.

25 December 1942:
Arrives at Shortland.

26 December 1942:
Departs Shortland on her second supply run to Guadalcanal, carrying her cargo in floating rubber containers to be released underwater.

30 December 1942:
After sundown, arrives off Kamimbo and debarks 25 tons of cargo.

1 January 1943:
Returns to Shortland.

2 January 1943:
Departs Shortland on her third supply run to Guadalcanal.

4 January 1943:
I-19 delivers 15 tons of cargo to Guadalcanal.

6 January 1943:
Returns to Shortland.

7 January 1943:
Departs Shortland on her fourth supply run to Guadalcanal.

9 January 1943:
I-19 delivers 12 tons to Guadalcanal.

11 January 1943:
Returns to Shortland.

13 January 1943:
Departs Shortland for Truk.

16 January 1943:
Arrives at Truk. 18 January 1943:
Departs Truk for Yokosuka.

25 January 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka for an overhaul.

31 January Operation "KE" - The Evacuation of Guadalcanal:
A task force of units of the Second and Third Fleets from Truk steams north of the Solomons as a feint to cover Rear Admiral Hashimoto Shintaro's (former CO of HYUGA) destroyer force from Rabaul. The IJN begins to evacuate the starving IJA troops from Guadalcanal.

9 February 1943:
The IJN completes successfully the evacuation of 11,700 troops from Guadalcanal.

24 March 1943:
Departs Yokosuka for Truk.

30 March 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

4 April 1943:
Departs Truk on her sixth war patrol to raid enemy communications off New Hebrides-Fiji Islands.

29 April 1943:
E of Efate, New Hebrides. After sundown, I-19 attacks the 7,176-ton unescorted Liberty-ship PETER SILVESTER, en route from Espiritu Santo to San Francisco, in 18-34S, 176-21E. Two torpedoes pass beneath the ship and explode without causing any damage.[6]

30 April 1943:
SE of Suva, Fiji Islands. I-19 chases the 7,176-ton American Liberty ship PHOEBE A. HEARST for three hours, then torpedoes and sinks her at 20-07S, 177-33E.

2 May 1943:
Off the Fiji Islands. I-19 torpedoes and damages the 7,181-ton American freighter WILLIAM WILLIAMS. The torpedo puts a hole 40 x 30 feet wide in her port side. The crew abandons ship, but when the submarine does not come back, most of the crew reboard her. They get up steam and make Suva, Fiji with the help of USS CATALPA.

16 May 1943:
Off Suva, Fiji Islands. I-19, still under Cdr Kinashi, torpedoes and sinks the 7,181-ton American freighter WILLIAM K. VANDERBILT, en route from Vila Elate to Suva. One man is killed.

6 June 1943:
Returns to Truk. Reassigned to the First Submarine Group.

4 July 1943:
Departs Truk on her seventh war patrol to reconnoiter New Hebrides-Fiji Islands and to raid enemy communications in that area.

15 July 1943:
Espiritu Santo. After sundown conducts periscope reconnaissance of Luganville harbor, observing one carrier and two heavy cruisers there.

20 July 1943:
Fiji. After sundown conducts periscope reconnaissance of Nandi Bay and Lauthala Bay, observing several carriers and battleships anchored there.

11 August 1943:
Returns to Viti Levu Island, Fiji, to conduct a second periscope reconnaissance of Lauthala Bay.

9 September 1943:
Returns to Truk.

13 August 1943:
Off the Fiji Islands. I-19 torpedoes and severely damages the 7,176-ton American Liberty ship M. H. DeYOUNG, en route to Espiritu Santo with road scrapers, cranes, trucks, and other heavy equipment. DeYOUNG takes a torpedo in the engine room. She remains afloat because of barge pontoons that are stowed in her holds. Later, she is towed to Nukualofa, Tongatabu by tanker QEEBEC, but is not repairable.

27 September 1943:
LtCdr (Cdr, posthumously) Kobayashi Shigeo (56)(former CO of I-171) is appointed the CO.

17 October 1943:
Departs Truk on her eighth war patrol for Wake Island area to intercept an American task fore reported in that area. Soon after departure redirected to Kwajalein to embark a E14Y1 "Glen" floatplane in order to reconnoiter Pearl Harbor. Assigned to Submarine Group "A" that same day.

E 18 October 1943:
Arrives at Kwajalein to practice floatplane launching.

20 October 1943:
A report of a large convoy south of the Hawaiian Islands headed west is received from I-36. I-19, I-35, I-169 and I-175 are ordered to intercept it.

23 October 1943:
Departs Kwajalein with ComSubDiv 2 Captain Iwagami Hidetoshi (former ComSubDiv 1) embarked.

13 November 1943:
Detached from Submarine Group "A" to conduct a reconnaisssance flight over Pearl Harbor.

17 November 1943:
After sundown, I-19 launches her floatplane that makes a reconnaissance over Pearl Harbor and returns safely to the submarine. The pilot reports the presence of one battleship and one carrier. During the recovery of the "Glen", American patrol aircraft are sighted in the vicinity and the floatplane is scuttled to avoid being spotted.

18 November 1943:
I-19 reports the results of the recce flight.

19 November 1943:
At 1802 (JST), LtCdr Kobayashi transmits a regular situation report. This is the last message received from I-19. Reassigned to Submarine Group "A" that same day.

20 November 1943: American Operation "Galvanic" - The Invasion of the Gilberts:
The Americans invade Tarawa and Makin Islands. The invasion fleet of 200 ships includes 13 battleships and 11 carriers.

300 miles SW of the Hawaiian Islands. Vice Admiral (Admiral, posthumously) Takagi Takeo (former CO of MUTSU), Commander, Sixth Fleet (Submarines) orders the I-19, I-21, I-35, I-39, I-40, I-169, I-174 and I-175 and RO-38 to proceed to Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands.

22 November 1943:
LtCdr Kobayashi fails to acknowledge the receipt of the message from the Sixth Fleet.

25 November 1943:
50 miles W of Makin Island. At 2049, Cdr G. E. Grigg's USS RADFORD (DD-446) makes night radar contact with a surfaced submarine at 8 miles. At 2130, RADFORD loses radar contact as the submarine submerges. At 2140, RADFORD makes sonar contact and then makes seven depth charge attacks. Postwar, Japanese records confirm that the submarine sunk at 03-10N, 171-55E is I-19.

2 February 1944:
Presumed lost with all 105 hands in the Gilberts area.

1 April 1944:
Removed from the Navy List.

22-24 June 1986:
Four former crewmembers of I-19 (Dr. Miyazawa Juichiro, Torpedomen Tange Shichiro and Otani Tadataka and Quartermaster Sugiyama Rishichi) participate in USS NORTH CAROLINA reunion in Wilmington, North Carolina. They are presented with a framed fragment of the Type 95 torpedo fired at NORTH CAROLINA in September 1942.

Authors' Notes:
[1] In May 1943, H. M. Storey was sunk by I-25.

[2] I-19 has been identified as the target attacked by USS LEXINGTON's (CV-2) VF-2 Brewster F2A-3 "Buffalos" and VT-2 Douglas TBD-1 "Devastators" on the afternoon of 10 January 1942, in the area approximately 100 miles W of Johnston Island. However, the Japanese records do not mention an attack on I-19 at that time and she did not undergo any battle damage repairs following her arrival at Kwajalein on the 15th.

[3] Kinashi Takakazu appears in many sources erroneously as Kinashi Takaichi.

[4] The Japanese learn about the hit on NORTH CAROLINA only after the war.

[5] A month later, O'BRIEN with severe structural stresses throughout, breaks in two and sinks while returning to a West Coast shipyard for further repairs.

[6] PETER SILVESTER was sunk in February 1945 by the German submarine U-862.

Special thanks go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro of Japan, Steve Eckardt of Australia and Andrew Obluski of Poland.

Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp

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