KYURYOSEN!

(HARUNA MARU prewar)

IJN HARUNA MARU:
Tabular Record of Movement


© 2018 Gilbert Casse, Berend van der Wal and Peter Cundall


16 December 1922:
Yokohama. Laid down by Yokohama Dock K.K. as a 1,460-tons refrigerated cargo ship for Himuro Gumi G.K.

7 May 1923:
Launched and named HARUNA MARU. [1]

20 June 1923:
Completed and registered at Yokohama with GRT and NRT respectively of 1,460-tons and 822-tons. [2]

13 February 1926:
Her ownership is restyled to Himuro Food K.K.

30 April 1926:
Her ownership is changed to Yokohama Dock K.K. Her NRT is changed to 1,462-tons. [2]

May 1926:
Chartered by Nichiro Gyogyo K.K.

6 August 1927:
Her ownership is changed to Nichiro Gyogyo K.K.

1 May 1928:
Departs Hakodate, Hokkaido on her first fishing campaign.

7 ~ 17 May 1928:
On crab fishing.

Early ~ Mid June 1928:
On her second fishing campaign (red salmon), transfers to the W coast.

Early ~ Mid July 1928:
On her third fishing campaign, loads salt fish on the W coast.

21 July 1928:
Departs Hakodate on her fourth fishing campaign.

27 July ~ 10 August 1928:
On crab fishing.

Mid-August ~ September 1928:
On her fifth fishing campaign, loads salt fish for autumn.

E September 1928:
On fishing, heads towards Tokyo, Shibaura.

11 June 1930:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 196. Operation areas include: A) N of 52N, E of 165E, B) Between 51N and 58N.

22 April 1931:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 196. Operation areas include: A) N of 55N, E of 162E, B) Between 51N and 58N.

25 April 1931:
Undergoes a special inspection.

10 June 1931:
At Ominato.

26 June 1931:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 196. Operation areas include: A) N of 56N, E of 162E, B) Between 51N and 58N.

19 April 1932:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

October 1932:
Converted into a South Sea tuna factory ship.

1932:
Her GRT and NRT are respectively changed to 1,537-tons and 853-tons. [2]

1 November 1932:
Chartered by Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry. Departs Tokyo and arrives at Tateyama later that day.

3 November 1932:
Departs Tateyama.

4 November 1932:
Arrives at Toba.

5 November 1932:
Departs Toba.

18 November 1932:
Arrives at Singapore.

21 November 1932:
Departs Singapore.

26 November 1932:
Arrives off Nias Island coast, Netherlands East Indies for a longline tuna fishery survey.

9 December 1932:
Departs Nias Island coast.

10 December 1932:
Arrives at Sabang, North Sumatra, Netherlands East Indies.

12 December 1932:
Departs Sabang.

14 December 1932 ~ 9 January 1933:
Conducts a longline tuna fishery survey.

10 January 1933:
Arrives at Sabang.

12 January 1933:
Departs Sabang.

13 January ~ 3 February 1933:
Conducts a longline tuna fishery survey.

4 February 1933:
Arrives at Sabang. Departs later that day.

6 February 1933:
Arrives at Penang, British Malaya (now Malaysia).

7 February 1933:
Departs Penang.

8 ~ 11 February 1933:
Conducts a fishing nets fishery survey.

13 February 1933:
Arrives at Singapore.

16 February 1933:
Departs Singapore.

20 ~ 22 February 1933:
On fishing grounds.

27 February 1933:
Arrives at Takao, Formosa (now Kaoshiung, Taiwan).

1 March 1933:
Departs Takao.

8 March 1933:
Arrives at Tateyama.

10 March 1933:
Departs Tateyama and arrives at Tokyo later that day.

30 March 1933:
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry charter ends.

1933:
Her GRT and NRT are respectively changed to 1,566-tons and 872-tons. [2]

20 October 1933:
Chartered by Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry.

26 October 1933:
Departs Tokyo and arrives at Tateyama later that day.

28 October 1933:
Departs Tateyama.

29 October 1933:
Arrives at Toba.

30 October 1933:
Departs Toba.

13 November 1933:
Arrives at Surabaya, Java, Netherlands East Indies.

14 November 1933:
Departs Surabaya.

16 November ~ 10 December 1933:
On fishing grounds.

11 December 1933:
Arrives at Surabaya.

14 December 1933:
Departs Surabaya.

15 December 1933 ~ 10 January 1934:
On fishing grounds.

11 January 1934:
Arrives at Batavia, Java (now Djakarta, Indonesia).

14 January 1934:
Departs Batavia.

18 January ~ 7 February 1934:
On fishing grounds.

11 February 1934:
Arrives at Singapore.

14 February 1934:
Departs Singapore.

23 February 1934:
Arrives at Kirun, Formosa (now Keelung, Taiwan).

25 February 1934:
Departs Kirun.

2 March 1934:
Arrives at Tateyama.

5 March 1934:
Departs Tateyama and arrives at Tokyo later that day.

March 1934:
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry charter ends.

5 May 1934:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 194. Operation areas include: N of 55N, E of 162E.

2 June 1934:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 194. Operation areas include: N of 56N, E of 162E.

31 July 1934:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

27 April 1935:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 197. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

2 July 1935:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

15 January ~ 11 March 1936:
Chartered by Kyodo Gyogyo K.K.

1936:
Her GRT and NRT are respectively changed to 1,549-tons and 849-tons. [2]

22 April 1936:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 195. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

10 June 1936:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

23 April 1937:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 195. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

18 May ~ 30 July 1937:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

4 July 1937:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

7 April 1938:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate T No. 195. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

13 May ~ 21 July 1938:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

30 June 1938:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

September 1938:
Requisitioned by the IJN as a general transport (Ippan Choyosen) and attached to Sasebo Naval Stores Department. Her NRT is changed to 845- tons. [2]

24 September 1938 ~ 12 April 1939:
Reserve Captain Satomi Tetsujiro is appointed supervisor.

5 November 1938:
Arrives at Three Tigers anchorage (San hu maodi).

8 November 1938:
Departs Three Tigers anchorage.

23 December 1938:
Arrives at Dao ling dao. Departs later that day.

12 January 1939:
Arrives at River Island anchorage.

12 January 1939:
0835 ~ 1000: Alongside to port of auxiliary gunboat DELHI MARU and provisions her with fresh food. Departs River Island anchorage and arrives at Dao ling dao. Departs there later that day.

5 February 1939:
Arrives at Wanshan. 1900 ~ 2110: Provisions auxiliary seaplane carrier KAGU MARU with fresh food.

6 ~ 19 February 1939:
Departs Wanshan Archipelago and arrives at Samah (Sanya), Hainan Island, China later that day.

20 February 1939:
1023 ~ 1040: Provisions auxiliary seaplane carrier KAGU MARU with fresh food. Departs Samah and returns there later that day.

26 February 1939:
At anchor.

E 27 February ~ 16 March 1939:
Departs Samah.

17 March 1939:
Arrives at Humen, Pearl River estuary, China. 1252 ~ 1455: Alongside to auxiliary gunboat DELHI MARU’s starboard and provisions her with fresh food.

18 March 1939:
Departs Humen.

19 March 1939:
Arrives at Haikow (Haikou), Hainan Island.

20 March 1939:
Departs Haikow.

22 March 1939:
Arrives at Haikow.

23 March 1939:
At 1050, provisions auxiliary seaplane carrier KAGU MARU with fresh food.

24 March 1939:
Departs Haikow and arrives at Humen later that day.

27 March 1939:
1705 ~1810: Alongside to auxiliary gunboat DELHI MARU’s starboard and provisions her with fresh food.

28 March 1939:
Departs Humen.

April 1939:
Released to her owners.

8 May 1939:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate Tai XI. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, W Kamchatka to E Siberia.

19 May ~ 26 July 1939:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

9 June 1939:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

October 1939:
Requisitioned by the IJN again.

3 October 1939 ~ 16 April 1940:
Reserve Captain Satomi Tetsujiro is appointed supervisor.

13 January 1940:
At Yingge Zui, Hainan Island provisions survey ship KYODO MARU No. 36 with fresh food.

11 February 1940 At Yazhou Bay, Hainan Island provisions survey ship KYODO MARU No. 36 with fresh food.

11 March 1940:
At Yingge Zui provisions survey ship KYODO MARU No. 36 with fresh food.

April 1940:
Released to her owners.

3 May 1940:
Nichiro Gyogyo K.K obtains a ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate No. 10. Operation areas include: Bering Sea N of 51N, E of 160E, within the line from Midnoy Island to Cape Nawalin excluding sea level N of Cronokie Cape.

18 May ~ 29 July 1940:
Chartered by Taiheiyo Gyogyo K.K.

8 July 1940:
The ‘Mother ship type salmon’ fishery approval certificate expires (Abolition of use of mother ship).

September 1940:
Requisitioned by the IJN again.

24 September 1940:
Reserve Captain Satomi Tetsujiro is appointed supervisor.

1941:
Released to her owners.

19 September 1941:
Requisitioned by the IJN as a general transport (Ippan Choyosen).

15 October 1941:
Registered as a special transport (stores ship) attached to the Yokosuka Naval District under instruction No. 1256.

1941:
Attached to Vice Admiral Inoue Shigeyoshi’s (37) Fourth Fleet as an auxiliary transport (Otsu) category. [3]

6 December 1941:
Assigned to invasion force supply unit under Yokosuka Naval District instruction No. 14.

December 1941:
Loads 250t fresh food and 250t stored grain products.

24 December 1941:
Departs Yokosuka.

28 January 1942:
Attached directly to invasion force supply unit under Yokosuka Naval District instruction No. 45.

15 February 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for Truk, Central Carolines possibly with tanker SHOYO MARU.

25 February 1942:
At Truk. Supplies CruDiv 6 warships, consisting of heavy cruisers AOBA (F), KAKO, KINUGASA and FURUTAKA, with fresh food.

8 April 1942:
Navy Captain Matsumoto Ichiro (45) is temporarily appointed supervisor.

13 April 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for Minamitorishima (Marcus Island).

23 April 1942:
Arrives at Otori Island (Wake Island).

26 April 1942:
Departs Otori Island.

9 May 1942:
At Emidji (Emiedj), Marshalls provisions auxiliary gunboat IKUTA MARU with food.

17 May 1942:
Departs Kwajalein, Marshalls.

31 May 1942:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

6 June 1942:
Scheduled for a food supply mission under Yokosuka instruction No. 40.

10 June 1942:
Departs Yokosuka heading south. The ship initially sails in a westbound convoy also consisting of MEIZAN, TASMANIA, HOKUTAI, MUNAKATA, TAIKO and TOUN MARUs escorted by auxiliary gunboat HIYOSHI MARU No. 2 GO. At some point HARUNA MARU is detached.

15 July 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for Truk.

1 August 1942:
Attached to South force under Combined Fleet instruction No. 671.

19 November 1942:
Departs Truk in a convoy also consisting of IJN auxiliary store ships HOKKAI and MINATO MARUs escorted by auxiliary gunboat CHOUN MARU.

20 November 1942:

At 05-00N, 149-00E CHOUN MARU detaches.

16 December 1942:
Arrives at Kwajalein.

24 December 1942:
Ownership is changed to Nippon Reizo K.K.

22 January 1943:
Arrives at Eniwetok, Marshalls.

23 January 1943:
Departs Eniwetok and arrives at Jabor, Jaluit Atoll, Marshalls.

4 February 1943:
Provisions auxiliary netlayer UJI MARU and auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 7 with fresh food.

15 February 1943:
Arrives at Kwajalein from Nauru.

1 April 1943:
Attached to Vice Admiral Samejima Tomoshige’s (37) Eight Fleet.

9 April 1943:
Departs Rabaul, New Britain, Bismarck Archipelago (Now Papua, New Guinea) in a convoy also consisting of auxiliary oilers KYOEI MARU and HISHI MARU No. 2 and water tanker KOAN MARU, escorted by subchaser CH-37.

10 April 1943:
CH-37 detaches and returns to Rabaul.

12 April 1943:
LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Louis D. McGregor's (USNA ’30) USS PIKE (SS-173) attacks the convoy. KOAN MARU successfully evades a torpedo attack at 05-30N, 150-42E.

13 April 1943:
Destroyers KAGERO and KUROSHIO arrive as escort.

14 April 1943:
At 1040, arrives at Truk.

14 May 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

16 May 1943:
Departs Yokosuka in convoy No. 3516 also consisting of auxiliary transports TAITO and SHOEI MARUs (1,986 GRT) escorted by auxiliary gunboat CHOUN MARU. The ships sail at 10 knots.

22 May 1943:
At 17-24N, 142-22E auxiliary gunboat SHOEI MARU (3,580 GRT) and auxiliary patrol boat KYO MARU No. 8 meet up with the convoy. Then TAITO MARU and KYO MARU No. 8 are detached from the convoy and head towards Saipan.

24 May 1943:
Auxiliary gunboat SHOEI MARU (3,580 GRT) detaches. The ship is torpedoed and sunk the following day by LtCdr (later Cdr) Albert C. ("Acey') Burrow's (USNA ’28) USS WHALE (SS-239). One crewman is KIA.

28 May 1943:
At 0800, arrives at Truk.

2 June 1943:
Departs Truk in convoy No. 1023 also consisting of auxiliary collier/oiler TONEI MARU and auxiliary transport SHOEI MARU (1,986 GRT) escorted by destroyer ASANAGI and auxiliary gunboat SEIKAI MARU. The convoy sails at 8.5 knots.

6 June 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

2 September 1943:
Departs Truk in convoy No. 4902 also consisting of auxiliary transports KIKUKAWA MARU and NANKAI MARU No. 2, requisitioned (B-AK) BOKUYO MARU, IJA transports KAIKO and TAIAN MARUs escorted by destroyer IKAZUCHI and kaibokan MUTSURE. The convoy sails at 10 knots.

N of Truk. At 1356, LtCdr Merrill K. Clementson’s (USNA ’33) USS SNAPPER (SS-185) is making an approach on the convoy when MUTSURE detects the submarine on her sonar. MUTSURE increases speed to 16 knots and charges the submarine. At 1401, at 900 yards LtCdr Clementson fires three torpedoes “down the throat” at MUTSURE. One hits and blows the bow off the kaibokan and another hits the small escort in the engine room. At 1413, MUTSURE capsizes to port and sinks at 08-40N, 151-31E. As she sinks, her pre-set depth-charges explode killing some survivors in the water.

IKAZUCHI foregoes a counter-attack and rescues survivors including MUTSURE's CO, LtCdr Tomidokoro Kotaro (52), but 46 crewmen are KIA. USS SNAPPER escapes.

4 September 1943:
At 0805, auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 8 departs Saipan and later meets up with the convoy.

5 September 1943:
At 0920, auxiliary minesweeper SEKI MARU No. 3 and auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 10 depart Saipan and meet up with TAIAN MARU from the convoy and escort the ship to Saipan. It is probable KYO MARU No. 8 accompanied the ships.

12 September 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

21 September 1943:
At 1300 departs Tokyo Bay in convoy No. 3921 also consisting of KIKUKAWA, HIYOSHI, HAKKAI, and TAIAN MARUs and MIKAGE MARU No. 18 and NANKAI MARU No. 2 escorted by kaibokan FUKUE and OKI. The convoy stops briefly at Tateyama before departing the following day.

22 September 1943:
At 0430, the convoy departs Tateyama with minesweeper W-27 as an additional escort.

E September 1943:
At some point, NANKAI MARU No. 2 probably encounters some mechanical trouble and returns back to Japan.

E 23 September 1943:
Minesweeper W-27 is detached and returns to Tateyama.

27 September 1943:
Requisitioned (B-AK) YAMAKUNI MARU departs Saipan to join the convoy escorted by auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 10 and auxiliary minesweeper SEKI MARU No. 3.

28 September 1943:
SW of Anatahan Island, Marianas. At 0715, TAIAN MARU is detached for Saipan escorted by auxiliary minesweeper FUMI MARU No. 2 and auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 10 that steamed out to meet her. At 1422, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) William S. Post's (USNA ’30) USS GUDGEON (SS-211) torpedoes and sinks TAIAN MARU transporting 106 passengers, 2,867-tons of cargo and 1,400kg of mail parcels. 46 passengers and 14 crewmen are KIA. The two escorts drop 17 depth charges unsuccessfully.

1 October 1943:
The convoy arrives at Truk.

28 November 1943:
At 1300, departs Yokosuka for Chichi Jima, Ogasawara Gunto (Bonins) in convoy No. 3128 also consisting of REIYO, SHOHO, NAGISAN, and KENRYU MARUs escorted by kaibokan FUKUE, auxiliary gunboat CHOUN MARU and initially auxiliary subchaser CHa-61.

At some point, auxiliary gunboat CHOAN MARU No. 2 GO detaches from convoy No. 3123 and joins convoy No. 3128.

29 November 1943:
S of Hachijo-Jima. At 0905, LtCdr Merrill K. Clementson’s (USNA ’33) USS SNAPPER (SS-185) torpedoes and sinks KENRYU MARU. Four men are KIA.

1 December 1943:
At some point, auxiliary gunboat CHOAN MARU No. 2 GO detaches to meet up with minesweepers W-17 and W-21 and auxiliary transport TATSUTAGAWA MARU, being the sole merchant survivor of convoy No. 3123. They arrive at Chichi-Jima, Ogasawara Gunto (Bonins) later that day.

Convoy No. 3128 arrives at Chichi-Jima.

3 December 1943:
Departs Chichi-Jima still in convoy No. 3128.

6 December 1943:
The convoy departs Saipan, Marianas with destroyer OITE as an additional escort.

12 December 1943:
At 2026, the convoy arrives at Truk.

15 December 1943:
At 1100, departs Truk in convoy No. 1152 also consisting of auxiliary transport JUZAN MARU escorted by destroyers ASANAGI and OITE and subchaser CH-31.

19 December 1943:
W of Cape Matanalem, New Hanover, Bismarck Archipelago (now Lavongai, Papua New Guinea). At 1235, the convoy is attacked by unidentified bombers at 02-41N, 148-57E, but they are driven off and inflict no damage.

20 December 1943:
At 1500, the convoy arrives at Rabaul.

27 December 1943:
Departs Rabaul in convoy O-706 also consisting of ore carrier HIDAKA MARU and SHIRANESAN, RYUA, and HOKKAI MARUs and KOSHU MARU No. 3 escorted by subchasers CH-39 and CH-33.

3 January 1944:
At 0800, arrives at Palau.

16 January 1944:
At 0830, departs Palau in convoy No. 2517 also consisting of IJA tanker SHINSHU MARU and oiler KYOEI MARU, escorted by subchaser CH-6 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-32 for Balikpapan, Borneo. HARUNA MARU sails in a zigzag course. At 2147, the starboard aft section collides with oiler KYOEI MARU’s bow. Two men are killed. At 2200, HARUNA MARU’s crew abandons ship and takes to their lifeboats. At 2211, HARUNA MARU sinks at 06-00N, 133-25E, about 86 nautical miles SW Palau.

10 March 1944:
Removed from the Navy list under instruction No. 427.


Authors' Notes:
[1] Not to be confused with passenger-cargo-ship and IJA troop transport (10,421 GRT, ’20)

[2] NRT is a ship's cargo volume capacity expressed in "register tons", one of which equals to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). It is calculated by subtracting non-revenue-earning spaces i.e. spaces not available for carrying cargo, for example engine rooms, fuel tanks and crew quarters, from the ship's gross register tonnage (GRT). Net register tonnage (NRT) is not a measure of the weight of the ship or its cargo, and should not be confused with terms such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

[3] There were two categories of Kyuryosen. (Ko) category with an IJN Captain as supervisor aboard and (Otsu) category without.

Thanks go to Gengoro S. Toda of Japan.

- Berend van der Wal, Gilbert Casse and Peter Cundall.


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