(Type C Escort by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships")

IJN Escort CD-28:
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2007-2012 Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall

Revision 3

1 February 1944:
Nagasaki. Laid down at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ shipyard.

11 April 1944:
Launched and numbered CD-28.

31 May 1944:
Completed and registered in the IJN.

3 July 1944:
CD-28 departs Moji for Manila with with destroyer HARUKAZE and kaibokan CD-11, CD-20 and CD-26 and subchaser CH-28 escorting convoy MOMA-01 consisting of KASHII, TAMATSU, TOZAN, NISSHO, MAYASAN, MIZUHO and NICHIRAN MARUs. The convoy is transporting the IJA's 5th Field Heavy Artillery and 58th Independent Mixed Brigade.

7 July 1944:
Formosa Straits. Convoy MOMA-01 is ordered to turn back to Keelung, Formosa.

9 July 1944:
MOMA-01 departs Keelung. ARABIA MARU may have joined the convoy at this point.

12 July 1944:
Bashi Strait. At 0330, LtCdr (later Cdr) Walter P. Schoeni's (USNA ’31) USS APOGON (SS-308) fires a full bow spread of torpedoes MAYASAN MARU. Schoeni fails to damage her, but USS APOGON is rammed during the attack. At 0720, LtCdr Harold E. Rubles' (USNA ’33) USS PIRANHA (SS- 389) torpedoes and sinks NICHIRAN MARU at 18-50N, 122-40E. KASHII MARU rescues survivors, but 1238 troops, one gunner and 15 crewmen are KIA. The convoy seeks shelter in Aparri Harbor, Philippines.

13 July 1944:
At 0800, departs Aparri.

15 July 1944:
At 1400, arrives at Manila.

23 July 1944:
At 1545, CD-28 departs Manila for Moji with torpedo boat SAGI, kaibokan CD-1, CD-18, minesweeper W-17, minelayer ENOSHIMA and subchaser CH-61 escorting convoy MI-08 consisting of MANILA, ARABIA, TATSUBATO, RYUSHO, HAKUSHIKA (HAKUROKU) and MIRI MARUs and tankers YAMAMIZU, SAN DIEGO, SAN LUIS, NITTETSU, TAKETSU (BUTSU), CHIHAYA, RYUSHO and SANKO (YAMAKO) MARUs and KYOEI MARU No. 6. The convoy speed is eight knots.

27 July 1944:
At 0920, auxiliary subchaser CHa-74 and auxiliary transport OYO MARU join the escort. At 1605, the convoy arrives at Takao.

28 July 1944:
Takao. CD-28 joins convoy MI-11 consisting of cargo ships EIKYU, MANKO, MIHO, ENOSHIMA, HACHIJIN, DAKAR and FUKUJU MARUs and BANSHU MARU No. 16, transports YOSHINO, FUSO and TEIRITSU (ex French LECONTE DE LISLE) MARUs and tankers KOEI, TAKETOYO, AYAYUKI, SHIICHIYO, HARIMA, AYAKUMO MARUs escorted by kaibokan SHIMUSHU, minesweepers W-28, W-38, W-39, auxiliary gunboat KAZAN (HUASHAN) MARU and subchaser CH-55.

29 July 1944:
Departs Takao. Soon after leaving, EIKYU MARU develops engine problems and returns to Takao.

31 July 1944:
Luzon Strait. Eighteen-ship convoy MI-11 that departed Takao, Formosa on 29 July for Miri, Borneo with six escorts is intercepted by a wolfpack under Captain (later Rear Admiral) Lewis S. Parks (USNA ’25). The pack consists of LtCdr (later Vice Admiral/MOH/COMSUBLANT) Lawson P. Ramage's (USNA ’31) USS PARCHE (SS-384)(F), LtCdr (later Captain) David L. Whelchel's (USNA ’30) USS STEELHEAD (SS-280) and LtCdr John C. Martin's (USNA ’34) USS HAMMERHEAD (SS-364).

280 miles NNW of Cape Mayraira, Luzon. At 0332, LtCdr Ramage's USS PARCHE torpedoes and sinks KOEI MARU. 105 out of 1050 troops on board and 9 crewmen are KIA. About the same time, oiler OGURA MARU No. 1 is hit by a torpedo, but does not sink. At 0340, Ramage torpedoes and sinks transport (ex-hospital ship) YOSHINO MARU carrying 5012 soldiers of Kwantung Army and 400 m3 of ammunition. She takes down 2,442 soldiers, 18 naval gunners and 35 sailors.

At 0420, Whelchel's USS STEELHEAD torpedoes DAKAR MARU, but she does not sink. At 0455, Whelchel torpedoes and sinks transport (ex-hospital ship) FUSO MARU. She takes down 1,350 aviation troops, 12 passengers and 22 crewmen and a cargo of 36 railway carriages and 1,120-tons of other military supplies.

At 0514, Ramage's USS PARCHE torpedoes and sinks MANKO MARU, carrying 517 sailors and naval civilians and 5,500-tons of ammunition and equipment. She takes down 260 naval personnel and other passengers, 17 crewmen and 20 gunners. All together, the sunken ships take down several thousand military personnel, crewmen and their cargoes of ammunition and other supplies. Thousands of troops are left floating in the waters of Balintang Channel.

CD-28 is ordered out of Takao to find DAKAR MARU by Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Kajioka Sadamichi (39), CO of the 6th Convoy Squadron of the First Surface Escort Division. Kajioka also orders AYAKUMO, TEIRITSU (ex French LECONTE DE LISLE) and TAKETOYO MARUs to pick up survivors. The three ships pull over 3,000 men out of the water. CD-28 also finds more survivors. Somehow, the small vessel takes aboard 2,000 men. Finally, CD-28 locates the drifting DAKAR MARU and transfers the survivors to her, then the kaibokan is ordered to tow DAKAR MARU, carrying a cargo of badly needed construction supplies, to Calayan Island, 35 miles to the east. Kajioka also orders a pair of flying boats to provide air cover.

16 August 1944:
At 0700, CD-28 departs Miri with kaibokan SHIMUSHU, CD-16, CD-7 and subchasers CH-30, CH-33 (which joins en route) and CH-41 escorting convoy MI-12 consisting of NORFOLK, UGA, KINRYU, JINEI, GYOKUYO or possibly OYO, JUNGEN GO and GYOSAN MARUs and unknown KAITO MARU and tankers ZUIYO, TAKETOYO, SEISHIN and NANSEI MARUs.

17 August 1944:
GYOSAN MARU is detached.

18 August 1944:
At 1352, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) William T. Kinsella's (USNA ’34) USS RAY (SS-271) torpedoes and sinks NANSEI MARU at 08-39N, 116-39E. 12 Gunners and 17 crewmen are killed. The convoy is ordered to seek shelter.

20 August 1944:
At 1930, arrives at Paluan Bay, NW Mindoro.

21 August 1944:
At 0556, departs Paluan Bay. Soon after, CD-28 attacks an enemy submarine contact. At 0720, a wolfpack consisting of USS GUITARRO (SS-363), USS HADDO (SS-255), USS HARDER (SS-257), USS RAY (SS-271) and USS MUSKALLUNGE (SS-262) make the first of a series of successful attacks. Kinsella's USS RAY torpedoes and sinks TAKETOYO MARU carrying a cargo of drummed oil and gasoline at 13-23N 120-19E. 13 crewmen are KIA.

At 0730, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Chester W. Nimitz, Jr's (USNA ’36) USS HADDO (SS-255) torpedoes and sinks NORFOLK MARU. One Gunner and 16 crewmen are KIA. At 0800, Nimitz also torpedoes and sinks KINRYU MARU carrying a cargo of bauxite. 65 of soldiers and three crewmen are KIA. At 0825, LtCdr (later Captain) Enrique D. Haskin's (USNA ’33) USS GUITARRO (SS- 363) torpedoes and sinks UGA MARU at 13-27N, 120-17E. 16 of the passengers, two ship’s gunners and 29 crewmen are killed.

22 August 1944:
At 2200, arrives at Manila.

27 August 1944:
At 0900, CD-28 departs Manila with kaikoban SHIMUSHU, ETOROFU, SHONAN and CD-7, subchaser CH-41 and patrol boat P-102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224) escorting convoy MAMO-02 consisting of KASHI, MAYASAN, NISSHO and NOTO MARUs. At 1548, anchors in Subic Bay.

28 August 1944:
At 0600, departs Subic Bay.

30 August 1944:
Arrives at Takao. CD-28, CD-7, subchaser CH-41 and patrol boat P-102 are detached.

14 September 1944:
CD-28 departs Takao for Singapore with kaibokan MANJU, KANJU and MIYAKE, torpedo boat HIYODORI and escort carrier SHINYO escorting convoy HI-75 consisting of oilers AMATO, YUHO, NICHIEI, RYOEI, TOHO (1944 built), SERIA and MANEI MARUs, FUJISAN MARU (1944), KUROSHIO and TAIHO MARUs, passenger liner ASAMA MARU, transport SAIGON MARU and flying boat carrier AKITSUSHIMA. Soon after leaving, AMATO and YUHO MARUS each develop engine problems and return to Takao.

18 September 1944:
At 1040, kaibokan KURAHASHI joins the escort of convoy HI-75.

19 September 1944:
At 1500, AMATO MARU rejoins the convoy.

20 September 1944:
During the day, NICHIEI, KUROSHIO, TAIHO and FUJISAN MARUs and carrier SHINYO all suffer engine or rudder problems, but the convoy remains intact.

22 September 1944:
At 1300, arrives at Singapore.

2 October 1944:
At 1700, CD-28 departs Singapore for Moji with escort carrier SHINYO and kaibokan MANJU, KANJU, MIYAKE, KURAHASHI and torpedo boat HIYODORI escorting convoy HI-76 consisting of oilers NICHIEI, NICHINAN, RYOEI, FUJISAN, KUROSHIO, TARAKAN and TOHO MARUs, ex-seaplane tender KIMIKAWA MARU and cargo ship TEIHOKU MARU (ex-French PERSEE).

8 October 1944:
South China Sea. At 0100, LtCdr Henry D. Sturr’s (USNA ’33) USS BECUNA (SS-319) attacks the convoy at 14-12N, 115-53E. Sturr fires four torpedoes and claims two hits on KIMIKAWA MARU. She is detached from the convoy and heads for Manila escorted by CD-28 and HIYODORI.

E 16 October 1944:
Samah, Hainan Island. The revised convoy consists of oilers NICHIEI, NICHINAN, RYOEI, FUJISAN (1944), KUROSHIO, TARAKAN and TOHO (1944) MARUs and cargo ship TEIHOKU MARU (ex-French PERSEE) escorted by escort carrier SHINYO and kaibokan CD-28, KANJU, MANJU, MIYAKE, KURAHASHI and torpedo boat HIYODORI. At 0745, the convoy, delayed because of an enemy task force near Formosa, departs port.

17 October 1944:
Early in the morning, MANJU and MIYAKE are detached with RYOEI MARU and head for Mako. Later that day, after news of increased enemy task force activity, the rest of the convoy turns back to Samah.

18 October 1944:
Off Samah. Kaibokan CD-25 and CD-32 join the escort of convoy HI-76. Tankers FUJISAN, NICHIEI and NICHINAN MARUs are detached and remain at Samah. Tanker TENEI MARU joins the convoy.

20 October 1944:
KURAHASHI and CD-25 are detached to escort NICHIEI MARU to Coron Bay. CD-28 is likely detached at about this time to return to St Jacques.

22 October 1944:
CD-28 departs St Jacques escorting convoy HI-76A consisting of three unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan TSUSHIMA, DAITO, CD-9 and CD-16.

26 October 1944:
At 2016 an enemy submarine is sighted at 20.19N 114.26E.

27 October 1944:
At 1345 an enemy submarine is sighted at 20.42N 114.34E. Soon after DAITO is likely detached.

2 November 1944:
Arrives at Moji.

10 November 1944:
At 1530, CD-28 departs Miike for Manila with kaibokan CD-8, CD-9, CD-54, auxiliary subchasers CHa-24 and an unidentified warship escorting convoy MOMA-07 consisting of KENJO, NARUO, GYOKUKO, JINYO, FUKUYO, TATSUAKI (TATSUSHO), MINO, SHIROUMA (HAKUBA), MIHO and SHINFUKU MARUs and KONAN MARU No. 1.

11 November 1944:
Near Cape Ose Sea, Goto Archipelago. At 0906, Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles E. Loughlin’s (USNA ’33) USS QUEENFISH (SS-393) fires four torpedoes and hits MIHO MARU in the bow. Unable to keep up with the convoy, she heads for Sasebo. The escorts drop 55 depth-charges on USS QUEENFISH, but she remains undamaged.

12 November 1944:
400 kilometers SW of Nagasaki. At 0420, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral/MOH) Eugene B. Fluckey’s (USNA ’35) USS BARB (SS-220) torpedoes NARUO and GYOKUYO MARUs at 31-30N 125-57E. NARUO MARU, hit by one or more torpedoes, blows up and sinks instantly. She was carrying 20,000 shells and army troops. These 490 passengers, 131 gunners and all 72 of the crew are killed. GYOKUYO MARU, carrying 456 troops and 110 shinyo explosive motor boats (EMBs) from the 14th and 15th squadrons.

GYOKUYO MARU is hit by a torpedo in the engine spaces. She goes dead in the water and begins to drift. Later, JINYO MARU attempts to tow the cripple, but the towline parts. The passengers are to transfered to other ships. The escorts drop seven depth-charges on USS BARB and she suffers slight damage.

At about 0620, LtCdr Robert H. Caldwell’s (USNA ’36) USS PETO (SS-265) torpedoes TATSUAKI MARU at 31-46N, 125-40E. One strikes No. 2 hold, a huge explosion occurs and she lists over, then explodes. The ship is carrying 1naval recruits of the 18th Sea Raiding Battalion, soldiers of the 19th Division, and Southern Army headquarters personnel. A total of 125 of them as well as 20 gunners and 65 crewmen are killed. JINYO MARU rushes to the area where the attack came from and drops depth-charges.

13 November 1944:
At 0950, arrives at the Shushan Islands, E of Shanghai.

14 November 1944:
155 miles E of Shanghai. About midnight, LtCdr Gordon W. Underwood’s (USNA ‘32) USS SPADEFISH (SS-411) fires five torpedoes by radar bearings at GYOKUYO MARU being towed by kaibokan CD-8 towards Shanghai. Hit by several torpedoes, GYOKUYO MARU sinks at 31-04N, 125-58E. 46 crewmen, 100 troops and unknown number of passengers are KIA. Also lost are 100 of 188 14th EMB squadron’s men and 121 of 186 15th EMB squadron’s men.

19 November 1944:
At 1200, the convoy arrives at Takao and is dissolved.

23 November 1944:
At 1530, CD-28 departs Takao with kaibokan CD-1, CD-3, CD-8, CD-54, old destroyer KURETAKE and subchasers CH-17, CH-18, CH-37 and CH-38 escorting convoy TAMA-32A consisting of AKAGISAN, HAGIKAWA, SORACHI, JINYO, NICHIYO, SHOEI, WAYO, MINO, SHIROUMA (HAKUBA) and SHONAN MARUs and BANSHU MARU No. 63 and KIDOTEI SS No. 6. Soon after leaving, anchors along the coast.

24 November 1944:
At 0400, departs Formosan coast.

25 November 1944:
At 2200, arrives at Musa Bay, Fuga Island.

27 November 1944:
At 0400, departs Musa Bay. At 1645, arrives at Lapoc Bay.

28 November 1944:
At 0600, departs Lapoc Bay. At 1800, arrives at N San Fernando.

29 November 1944:
At 0600, departs N San Fernando.

30 November 1944:
At 0500, arrives at Manila.

3 December 1944:
CD-28 departs Takao with destroyer KURETAKE, kaibokan CD-54 and CH-33 and two unidentified warships escorting convoy TAMA-34 consisting of JINYO, KENJO, YAMAKUNI, FUKUYO and YASUKUNI MARUs, BANSHU MARU No. 31 and SHINPUKU MARU.

6 December 1944:
At 2147, a concerted wolfpack attack begins by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Roy M. Davenport's (USNA ’33) USS TREPANG (SS-412) and LtCdr James D. Fulp's (USNA ’34) USS SEGUNDO (SS-398).

Davenport torpedoes and sinks JINYO MARU carrying troops, depth charges, boats and possibly tanks at 18-30N 121-57E. with 1383 troops and 44 crewmen are KIA. At 2237, Fulp torpedoes YASUKUNI MARU , carrying 315 troops, 155 passengers, coal, vehicles and tanks, that runs aground and is later abandoned near 18-59N 120-56E. Three watchmen and 25 crewmen die. Passengers’ casualties are unknown. At 2358 Davenport hits FUKUYO MARU with three torpedoes. She blows up and sinks nearby. The ship is carrying the 18th Naval Strike Group in four parties consisting of 921 men, of which 913 together with 66 gunners and 94 crewmen are killed. BANSHU MARU No. 31 is also sunk with no survivors from her crew of 23 around this time at 18-54N, 120-49E.

7 December 1944:
At 0005, Fulp's USS SEGUNDO torpedoes and sinks KENJO MARU at 18-52N, 121-57E. Many of the 379 troops aboard, as well as nine armed guards and 13 crewmen are killed. YAMAKUNI MARU, damaged by Davenport's USS TREPANG, goes no further than N San Fernando.

9 December 1944:
SHINPUKU MARU arrives at Manila with escorts less kaibokan CD-54 that is detached to rescue YASUKUNI MARU.

14 December 1944:
Off Dasol Bay, Luzon. At about 2200, LtCdr (later Cdr) William H. Hazzard’s (USNA ’35) USS BLENNY (SS-324), using radar bearings on the surface, torpedoes and sinks CD-28 about 100 miles NW of Manila at 15-50N, 119-45E. All 115 hands are lost.

At 1155, USN codebreakers intercept and decrypt an action summary from Lieutenant Toto (or Moto) that reads: “Coast Defense Ship #28 was torpedoed and sunk by enemy submarine at 2334 on the 14th in position 15-50 N, 119----E..” The garbled message mentions that the captain was killed.

22 December 1944:
On that day, FRUMEL decrypts the following message from Iba Air Base, timed 221155: "Coast Defence Vessel 28 was torpedoed and sunk in 15-50N, 119E at 2334 on 14th Dec. whilst escorting TAMA-34 convoy."

10 February 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

Authors' Note:
Thanks go to John Whitman of the USA for info on CNO intercepts of Japanese messages and to Mr. Gilbert Casse of France. Special thanks also go to Hans Mcilveen of the Netherlands for research based on wartime FRUMEL intercepts.

-Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall

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