JUNYOKAN!

(OYODO at Kure in 1943 - colorized photo by Irotokoo, Jr)

IJN OYODO: Tabular Record of Movement

© 1997-2016 Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp
Revision 10


14 February 1941:
Kure Navy Yard. Laid down.

2 April 1942:
Launched and named OYODO.

31 December 1942:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Tawara Yoshioki (43)(former CO of NAGARA) is assigned additional duty as Chief Equipping Officer while his heavy cruiser AOBA undergoes battle-damage repairs and refit.

1 January 1943:
Captain (later Rear Admiral), the Baron, Tomioka Sadatoshi (45) assumes the duty of Chief Equipping Officer.

28 February 1943:
Completed at Kure and registered in the Yokosuka Naval District. Captain Tomioka is the Commanding Officer. OYODO is assigned to the Yokosuka Naval Station.

7 March 1943:
Departs Kure.

8 March 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka. Begins trials and training in Tokyo Bay.

1 April 1943:
OYODO is assigned to the Third Fleet.

16 April 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

17 April 1943:
Arrives at Nagahama.

18 April 1943:
Departs Nagahama. Arrives at Hashirajima.

April 1943:
Kure. A type 21 air-search radar is fitted.

1 May 1943:
OYODO is assigned to the Main Body, Mobile Force.

11 May 1943: American Operation "Landcrab" - The Invasion of Attu, Aleutians:
Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Thomas C. Kinkaid's (former CO of INDIANAPOLIS, CA-35) Task Force 16, covered by Rear Admiral Francis W. Rockwell's (former CO of THATCHER, DD-162) Task Force 51, lands elements of the Army's 4th and 7th Infantry Divisions under the command of Maj Gen Eugene M. Landrum at Holtz Bay and Massacre Bay that later capture the island.

20 May 1943:
Departs Tokuyama with light cruiser AGANO.

22 May 1943: Operation "Kita" (North):
OYODO and AGANO arrive at Tokyo Bay. They join BatDiv 1's MUSASHI, BatDiv 3's HARUNA and KONGO, CarDiv 2's JUNYO and HIYO, CruDiv 7's KUMANO, SUZUYA and MOGAMI, CruDiv 8's TONE and CHIKUMA and destroyers. Carriers ZUIKAKU, SHOKAKU and ZUIHO also join the task force. Before this force can depart to launch a counterattack in the Aleutians, Attu falls to American. forces.

23 May 1943:
Arrives at Hashirajima.

15 June 1943:
Departs Hashirajima. Arrives at Kure. Refit.

19 June 1943:
Drydocked.

23 June 1943:
Undocked.

28 June 1943:
Departs Kure.

25 June 1943:
Departs Kure. Training in the Inland Sea thereafter.

30 June 1943:
Arrives at Tokuyama. Training thereafter.

4 July 1943:
Departs Tokuyama. One-day training cruise in the Inland Sea thereafter.

8 July 1943:
Departs Kure for Shinagawa with CruDiv 8's TONE and CHIKUMA and light cruiser AGANO.

9 July 1943:
Arrives at Shinagawa. Embarks troops and material. Departs Shinagawa with CarDiv 1's SHOKAKU, ZUIKAKU and ZUIHO, escort carrier CHUYO, seaplane carrier NISSHIN, CruDiv 7's MOGAMI, CruDiv 8's TONE and CHIKUMA, light cruiser AGANO, DesRon 2's TAMANAMI, DesDiv 4's ARASHI and HAGIKAZE, DesDiv 17's ISOKAZE, DesDiv 61's HATSUZUKI and SUZUTSUKI.

11 July 1943:
The task force is sighted by USS STURGEON (SS-187) and SEARAVEN (SS-196), but neither submarine is able to gain an attack position.

15 July 1943:
The task force is sighted by USS TINOSA (SS-283). TINOSA fires four torpedoes at ZUIHO, but they all miss. The task force is also spotted by USS POGY (SS-266), but she is unable to attack.

Arrives at Truk.

19 July 1943:
Departs Truk on a troop transport run with seaplane tender NISSHIN, CruDiv 8's TONE and CHIKUMA, CruDiv 7's MOGAMI, light cruiser AGANO, DesDiv 4's ARASHI and HAGIKAZE , DesDiv 17's ISOKAZE, DesDiv 61's HATSUZUKI and SUZUTSUKI. Disembarks troops.

21 July 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

24 July 1943:
Departs Rabaul with TONE, CHIKUMA and MOGAMI, light cruiser AGANO and DesDiv 61's HATSUZUKI and SUZUTSUKI.

26 July 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

29 August 1943:
Captain (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Shinoda Katsukiyo (44)(former CO of NAGARA) assumes command.

19 September 1943:
Sorties from Truk with carrier ZUIHO to join the fleet which departed previous day for Brown Atoll, Eniwetok in response to raids on Tarawa, Makin and Abemama by Rear Admiral Charles A. Pownall's Task Force 15 carriers USS LEXINGTON (CV-16), PRINCETON (CVL-23) and BELLEAU WOOD (CVL-24).

Vice Admiral Ozawa Jisaburo (former CO of HARUNA), in tactical command, leads the fleet's first section: BatDiv 1's YAMATO, NAGATO, CarDiv 1's SHOKAKU and ZUIKAKU, CruDiv 5's MYOKO and HAGURO, CruDiv 8's CHIKUMA and TONE, light cruisers AGANO and NOSHIRO and destroyers. Vice Admiral Kurita Takao (former CO of KONGO) leads the second section with his Advance Force's CruDiv 4's ATAGO, TAKAO, MAYA and CHOKAI.

Admiral (Fleet Admiral, posthumously) Koga Mineichi (former CO of ISE), Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet, remains at Truk in the fleet's flagship MUSASHI with BatDiv 2's FUSO and BatDiv 3's KONGO and HARUNA.

25 September 1943:
The fleet returns to Truk.

5-6 October 1943:
Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Alfred E. Montgomery's Task Force 14's carriers USS ESSEX (CV-9), YORKTOWN (CV-10), LEXINGTON (CV-16), INDEPENDENCE (CV-22), BELLEAU WOOD (CVL-24) and COWPENS (CVL-25) launch raids on Wake Island and the Marshall Islands.

17 October 1943:
The Japanese intercept radio traffic that suggests the Americans are planning another raid on Wake. Admiral Koga sorties from Truk to Brown Atoll, Eniwetok to intercept the enemy task force with the fleet: BatDiv 1's YAMATO, MUSASHI, NAGATO, BatDiv 2's FUSO, Bat Div 3's KONGO and HARUNA, CarDiv 1's SHOKAKU, ZUIKAKU and ZUIHO, CruDiv 4's ATAGO, TAKAO, MAYA and CHOKAI, CruDiv 7's SUZUYA and MOGAMI, CruDiv 8's CHIKUMA and TONE and light cruisers OYODO, AGANO and NOSHIRO and destroyers.

19 October 1943:
At Brown.

23 October 1943:
Departs Brown and sorties to a position 250 miles SW of Wake.

24 October 1943:
OYODO rescues the 3-man crew of reconnaissance B5N2 "Kate" launched the day before to search for the USN off Wake, but was forced to ditch. OYODO returns after no enemy forces are detected.

26 October 1943:
The fleet arrives back at Truk.

6 December 1943:
At Truk. Flagship of Vice Admiral Ozawa's Third Fleet.

30 December 1943:
Departs Truk on a troop transport run to Kavieng, New Ireland with light cruiser NOSHIRO, DesDiv 10's YAMAGUMO and DesDiv 30's AKIKAZE.

1 January 1944:
Arrives at Kavieng. Attacked by aircraft from TG 50.2's USS BUNKER HILL (CV-17) and MONTEREY (CV-26). Slight damage, but two men are killed and six wounded.

2 January 1944:
Meets and escorts damaged transport KIYOSUMI MARU torpedoed by USS BALAO (SS-285). Takes off 71 wounded sailors.

4 January 1944:
Arrives at Truk.

10 February 1944:
Following the American invasion of Kwajalein, OYODO departs Truk with Admiral Koga embarked aboard battleship MUSASHI with carriers CHIYODA and ZUIHO, DesDiv 21's WAKABA and HATSUHARU, DesDiv 27's SHIRATSUYU, DesDiv 24's MICHISHIO and DesDiv 32's TAMANAMI.

16 February 1944:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

19 February 1944:
Departs Yokosuka with aircraft torpedoes and supplies.

22 February 1944:
Arrives at Saipan.

23 February 1944:
Departs Saipan.

26 February 1944:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

6 March 1944:
Refit. OYODO is converted to a Combined Fleet flagship. OYODO is designed to carry six high-speed Kawanishi E15K1 Norm reconnaissance floatplanes, but the aircraft are not as fast as expected and the strategic situation changes before they can be delivered. It is decided to equip OYODO with a shorter catapult and two Aichi E16A1 Paul reconnaissance planes, but these are not ready on time either. OYODO receives two standard IJN Type O Aichi E13A1 Jake three-seat reconnaissance floatplanes. The seaplane hangar is converted to crew living quarters and the crews' quarters in the forward part of the ship are converted to use by staff personnel. The catapult is replaced. Six Type 96 triple-mount 25-mm. AA guns and 11 single-mount guns are installed bringing OYODO's 25-mm. AA suite to a total of 47 barrels. A Type 22 surface-search radar is also fitted. Other work is carried out in the engine and boiler rooms.

31 March 1944:
The refit/conversion is completed.

April 1944:
Embarks two E13A1 floatplanes.

30 April 1944:
At Kisarazu on Tokyo Bay. Flagship of Admiral Toyoda Soemu, new CINC Combined Fleet.

6 May 1944:
Captain (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Abe Toshio (46)(former ComDesDiv 21, 8 & 10) assumes command. Captain Shinoda is later reassigned as CO of YAMASHIRO and is KIA at Surigao Strait.

22 May 1944:
1944:
Departs Kisarazu.

25 May 1944:
Arrives at Hashirajima; remains in port there.

25 June 1944:
Departs Hashirajima.

28 June 1944:
Arrives at Kisarazu.

15 August 1944:
Captain (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Mutaguchi Kakuro (44)(former ComDesDiv 15) assumes command. Captain Abe is later reassigned as CO of new carrier SHINANO and is KIA aboard her.

29 September 1944:
Admiral Toyoda and the Combined Fleet Staff move ashore from OYODO to the IJN's underground headquarters at Keio University in Hiyoshi near Yokohama.

11 October 1944:
Departs Yokosuka for Hashirajima with DesDiv 41's FUYUZUKI and SHIMOTSUKI.

12 October 1944:
At about 2100, Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Roy S. Davenport's TREPANG (SS-412) attacks OYODO group in a surface radar attack. Davenport fires six torpedoes at OYODO, but they all miss, but one hits FUYUZUKI and damages her bow and forward gun turret. Davenport later claims damaging a battleship and sinking a destroyer.

20 October 1944:Operation "SHO-I-GO"(Victory) - The Battle of Leyte Gulf:
At 1700, OYODO departs the Yashima anchorage towards the Philippines in Vice Admiral Ozawa's Northern Mobile ("Decoy") Force with CruDiv 31's light cruiser ISUZU, DesDiv 41's KUWA and SUGI, DesDiv 43's MAKI and KIRI and DesDiv 61's AKIZUKI, HATSUZUKI, WAKATSUKI and SHIMOTSUKI. CarDiv 1's ZUIKAKU, ZUIHO, CHITOSE and CHIYODA, CarDiv 4's HYUGA and ISE are screened by OYODO, light cruiser TAMA and destroyers.OYODO is the only warship in Ozawa's force that has reconnaissance floatplanes. Both Jakes execute scouting missions and ASW patrols over the fleet.

25 October 1944: The Battle off Cape Engano:
Between 0845-1740, the Northern Mobile Force is attacked by Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher's Task Force 38 carrier planes from USS ENTERPRISE (CV-6), ESSEX (CV-9), INTREPID (CV-11), FRANKLIN (CV-13), LEXINGTON (CV-16), INDEPENDENCE (CVL-22) , BELLEAU WOOD (CVL-24), LANGLEY (CVL-27), CABOT (CVL-28) and SAN JACINTO (CVL-30). TF 38 launches 527 sorties in five strikes against the Northern Force. During the first strike, OYODO suffers two near-misses and at 0848 she is hit by a bomb that damages her No. 4 boiler room. At 1054, Vice Admiral Ozawa leaves sinking carrier ZUIKAKU and transfers his flag to OYODO. Ozawa orders his force to retire northward. ZUIKAKU finally goes under at 1414. Carriers ZUIHO and CHITOSE and destroyer AKIZUKI are also sunk during the day. OYODO is hit by two rockets from F6F "Hellcat" fighter-bombers and damaged by the near-miss of a bomb.

At 1900, Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Laurence T. Du Bose's CruDiv 13's USS SANTA FE (CL-60), BIRMINGHAM (CL-62), MOBILE (CL-63) and RENO (CL-96) and destroyers arrive at the scene of the earlier sinkings where destroyers WAKATSUKI and KUWA are rescuing survivors of ZUIKAKU and ZUIHO. The rescue effort is covered by destroyer HATSUZUKI. ATSUZUKI radios Ozawa that an American cruiser-destroyer force is attacking the destroyers left behind to assist CHIYODA. Ozawa orders OYODO, Rear Admiral Matsuda's CarDiv 4 and their destroyers to engage the Americans. They reverse course to 185 degrees, and set off at 16 knots. The Americans sink HATSUZUKI and chase off WAKATSUKI and KUWA, then sink stationary CHIYODA with all hands. At 2330, the CarDiv 4 group, unable to make contact with American cruiser force, reverses course northward.

26 October 1944:
At 0610, HYUGA's lookouts spot torpedo tracks to port, bearing 110. A submarine alert is put into effect immediately. The torpedoes pass 50 yards ahead of HYUGA's bow.

27 October 1944:
At 1200, CarDiv 4 arrives safely at Sakawa Bay, Amami-Oshima. Ozawa transfers the Combined Fleet's flag to HYUGA from OYODO.

29-31 October 1944:
OYODO detaches from the CarDiv 4 group and departs Amami-O-Shima on a transport run to Manila.

1 November 1944:
Arrives at Manila.

4 November 1944:
OYODO departs Manila for Brunei Bay.

8 November 1944:
Arrives at Brunei. Joins battleship HARUNA, cruisers HAGURO and ASHIGARA and DesDiv 43's KIRI and UME.

17 November 1944:
Departs Brunei with HARUNA, HAGURO and ASHIGARA.

18 November 1944:
The HARUNA group arrives at the Spratly Islands. CarDiv 4's ISE and HYUGA and DesDiv 61's SHIMOTSUKI are already there unloading troops and supplies after being diverted from Manila because of carrier air attacks on that port. The Commander of the Fifth Fleet, Vice Admiral Shima Kiyohide (former CO of OOI), arrives from Manila aboard DesDiv 21's HATSUSHIMO accompanied by DesDiv 2's ASASHIMO and DesDiv 7's KASUMI and USHIO. Shima then transfers his flag to ASHIGARA.

20 November 1944:
OYODO departs the Spratlys with HARUNA, CarDiv 4's ISE and HYUGA, ASHIGARA and HAGURO and destroyers.

22 November 1944:
Arrives at Lingga.

12 December 1944:
Departs Lingga with ASHIGARA.

14 December 1944:
Arrives at Cap St Jacques, near Saigon. ASHIGARA continues on to Camranh Bay.

24 December 1944:
Departs Cap St Jacques for Camranh. At 0900, departs Camranh with ASHIGARA and Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Kimura Masatomi's (former CO of SUZUYA) DesRon 2's DesDiv 2's KIYOSHIMO, DesDiv 18's KASUMI (F), DesDiv 31's ASASHIMO, DesDiv 41's SUGI and KASHI and DesDiv 43's KAYA to raid the American beachhead at San Jose on Mindoro, Philippines.

26 December 1944:
During their approach to Mindoro, Kimura's Raiding Force is attacked by American bombers. At 2045, ASASHIMO suffers a near-miss by a bomb 200 meters to starboard. At 2101, OYODO is attacked by B-24s. She is hit by two 500-lb. bombs, but one is a dud and the other does only slight damage. At 2115, two direct bomb hits crippled KIYOSHIMO and make her unnavigable. At 2120, KAYA shoots down one of the B-24s. At 2124, ASHIGARA is hit and damaged by a 500-lb. bomb. At 2130, another plane (possibly a P-38) crashes into aft stack of KAYA. At 2210, the KASUMI, ASHIGARA and OYODO fire at American PT-boats. One is hit and burns. At 2303, ASHIGARA and OYODO commence firing illuminating shells into Mangarin Bay. An American convoy is sighted. At 2310, KASUMI fires four torpedoes at troop transports and gets one hit. At 2315, KIYOSHIMO is sunk by a torpedo from USS PT-223. She explodes and sinks at N 12-38 E 120-43. At 2326, KASHI and KAYA fire two torpedoes each. At 2330, the Japanese claim sinking four transports, but none are actually sunk. From 2345 to 0004, KASUMI, ASASHIMO, ASHIGARA and OYODO bombard a supply dump at mouth of the Kasuang River. Many hits are scored, and fires started. During the bombardment, freighter JAMES S. BREASTED, anchored in Ilin Strait, is damaged by shell fragments, but not before landing 600 Army troops unharmed. Later, BREASTED is bombed, probably by an American plane, that sets off her cargo of gasoline forcing her to be abandoned

27 December 1944: Operation "REI" - The San Jose Intrusion:
At 0100, ASHIGARA and OYODO bombard American "gun boats". From 0100-0235, the 1st Unit rescues KIYOSHIMO's survivors. At 0345, ASASHIMO is bombed, but not damaged. At 2325, ASASHIMO is bombed again, but not damaged. Cdr Arnold H. Holtz' USS BAYA (SS-318) sights ASHIGARA, OYODO and their destroyers at 12-51N, 113-27E returning to Camranh Bay. Holtz closes the range to attack. Reaching an attack position, he submerges to radar depth ahead of Kimura's force. BAYA has problems maintaining depth control, so Holtz decides to carry out his attack by sound. At 2207, at 3,200 yards, he fires a full bow salvo at the leading "cruiser" (actually ASASHIMO), but all six torpedoes miss.

28 December 1944:
At 0020, KASHI is bombed, but not damaged. At 1830, the 1st Unit anchors in Camranh Bay.

29 December 1944:
Departs Camranh via Cap St Jacques.

30 December 1944:
Departs Cap St Jacques.

1 January 1945:
Arrives at Singapore.

9-29 January 1945:
At Singapore. Repaired, refitted.

29 January 1945:
Departs Singapore. Arrives at Lingga.

6 February 1945:
Departs Lingga with battleship-carriers ISE, HYUGA, Desdiv 18's KASUMI, DesDiv 21's ASASHIMO and HATSUSHIMO. Arrives at Singapore.

7-9 February 1945: Operation Kita ("North"):
Singapore. HYUGA and ISE are each loaded with 5,000 drums of aviation gasoline, 100 kiloliters of aviation gasoline in ship storage tanks, 330 drums of ordinary gasoline, 520 tons of rubber, 820 tons of tin, 50 tons of tungsten and 30 tons of mercury. OYODO takes on 300 tons of rubber, zinc, mercury, tin and gasoline. Their destroyers take on 140 tons of rubber and tin. The ships also embark 1,150 oil field technical personnel.

10 February 1945:
OYODO is attached to CarDiv 4. At 2100, the "Completion Force" (KAN-Butai) comprised of ISE, HYUGA, OYODO and destroyers KASUMI, ASASHIMO and HATSUSHIMO sorties from Singapore.

11 February 1945:
Lt (later Vice Admiral Sir) Hugh "Rufus" MacKenzie's submarine HMS TANTALUS sights the "Force". TANTALUS tries an "end-around" but is bombed by an air escort and forced to go deep, unable to attack.

13 February 1945:
1213: South China Sea. LtCdr John M. Hyde's USS BERGALL (SS-320) picks up the Force in poor weather conditions off Hainan Island at 15-34N, 110-50E. Hyde, submerged on the track, cannot get closer than 4,800 yards. He fires six torpedoes at a battleship, but they all miss. BERGALL is counter-attacked by the escorts with new, larger explosive depth-charges but escapes. The Force is also attacked the same day by LtCdr James H. Campbell's USS BLOWER (SS-325). He fires five torpedoes at a battleship and one at OYODO, but they all miss.

1530: The Force comes out of a rainsquall. One of its ships launches a floatplane. LtCdr H. S. Simpson's USS BASHAW (SS-241) is sighted on the surface. A battleship opens fire with her main armament on the submarine. One 14-inch shell comes within a mile of BASHAW. Simpson crash-dives and breaks off his attack.

15 February 1945:
At 1900, the Force anchors at Matsu Island Anchorage (26-09N, 119-56E), Fukien Province, China.

16 February 1945:
Formosa Strait. At 0000, the Force departs Matsu Island Anchorage for Kure via the Korean coast and the Shimonoseki Strait. Destroyers NOKAZE and KAMIKAZE join the escort briefly, then are detached southbound.

LtCdr (later Captain) Benjamin E. Adams, Jr's USS RASHER (SS-269) is alerted by Ultra to the movement of the Force. At 0507, RASHER makes radar contact south of Wenchow, China at 26-55N, 122-03E. RASHER picks up three escorts, range nine miles, heading 030 at 18 knots. In a driving rain, Adams targets the second ship. At 1,800 yards, he fires six Mark-18 electric torpedoes, but the Force changes course. All six torpedoes miss.

At 2106, the Force anchors N of Chusan (Zhoushan) Island, SE of Shanghai.

18 February 1945:
At 0700, the Force departs Chusan Island.

18 February 1945:
At 1600, the Force anchors off E side of Shozen-To (Ch´angson-do) island an SE of Sanzenpo Harbor, S Korea. (34-51N, 128-01E).

19 February 1945:
At 0700, the Force departs Shozen-To. At 1600, anchors of Mutsure-Jima. I

20 February 1945:
At 1000, arrives at Kure. In all, the Force escaped pursuit by 23 American and Allied submarines.

25 February 1945:
Captain Matsuura Tadashi (49)(former CO of RYUHO) assumes command. Captain Mutaguchi is reassigned as CO of ISE and is KIA aboard her in Jul '45.

19 March 1945:
Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Marc A. Mitscher's Task Force 58 carriers USS ESSEX (CV-9), INTREPID (CV-11), HORNET (CV-12), WASP (CV-18), HANCOCK (CV-19), BENNINGTON (CV-20) and BELLEAU WOOD (CVL-24) make the first carrier attack on the Kure Naval Arsenal. More than 240 aircraft (SB2C "Helldivers", F4U "Corsairs" and F6F "Hellcats") attack the fleet. Three 500-lb bombs hit OYODO. She floods, but is towed to Etajima and beached.

23 March 1945:
Kure. Drydocked for repairs.

4 April 1945:
Undocked. Departs Kure. Arrives at Etajima, Inland Sea that day. Fully manned and combat-ready.

15 May 1945:
Captain Taguchi Shoichi (49)(former CO of DDs HATSUZUKI and YUKIKAZE) assumes command.

24 July 1945: The Final Destruction of the Imperial Japanese Navy:
Etajima. From 0600 to 1700, OYODO suffers several attacks by about 50 of Vice Admiral (later Admiral) John S. McCain's Task Force 38's SB2C Helldiver dive-bombers and F6F Hellcats. She is strafed and hit by four 500-lb. bombs and many near misses that cause her to list slightly to starboard.

28 July 1945:
Etajima. From 0600 to 1700, OYODO suffers several attacks by about 40 of Task Force 38's aircraft. She is hit by four more bombs from SB2C's of USS WASP's (CV-18) Air Group 86 and by aircraft from SHANGRI-LA (CV-38) and F6F fighter-bombers from MONTEREY's (CVL-26) VF-34. At 1000, hits near the bridge cause extensive flooding and OYODO takes on a heavy list to starboard. At 1200, she capsizes to starboard in shallow water. About 300 crewmen are killed. Her remaining crew abandons ship that afternoon.

20 November 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.


Authors' Notes:
Special thanks for assistance in researching the IJN officers mentioned in this TROM go to Mr. Jean-François Masson of Canada, Fontessa-san of Japan and Matthew Jones of the USA. Thanks for assistance also goes to "Adm. Gurita" of the Netherlands and Andrew Obluski of Poland. Thanks also go to Erich Muehlthaler of Germany.

- Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp.


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