(Gunboat IJN HOZU by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships")

Tabular Record of Movement

©2007-2018 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

Revision 4

June-August 1900: The Boxer Rebellion:
China. In defense of their foreign legations, about 20,000 Italian soldiers and troops of the United States, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia and Japan fight and win a campaign against the anti-foreign, anti-imperialist Boxers and Chinese Nationalist troops. Shortly thereafter, the majority of American, European and Japanese troops are withdrawn from China.

7 September 1901:
A peace treaty is signed between Empress Tsu Hsi and the colonial powers. The treaty gives Italy the right to occupy a portion of Tientsin and two commercial quarters in Peking (Beijing) and Shanghai. The Regia Marina Italiana’s presence in China begins with this treaty.

Peking. The Commander of the Italian Naval Detachment contracts with the Shanghai Docks and Engineering Co. for construction of a small river gunboat; however, events in China and World War I interrupt its construction.

Gunboat RN ERMANNO CARLOTTO finally is completed and enters Italian service in China. [1]

Tientsin, China. In response to increasing tensions in China, Italian armoured cruisers RN CALABRIA and LIBIA (ex-Turkish DRAMA) arrive at Tientsin to reinforce the Italian presence. They join CARLOTTO and gunboat RN SEBASTIANO CABOTO already there.

During the 1920's, Lt (later Admiral of the Fleet) Angelo Jachino is in command of ERMANNO CARLOTTO.

16 June 1923:
Chungking. CARLOTTO arrives after navigating about 1,400 miles up the Yangtze from Shanghai. She is the first Italian ship to visit the city.

Shanghai. Armored cruiser RN SAN GIORGIO arrives carrying a company of the San Marco battalion. By March, the company moves to Tientsin where it is later joined by the San Giorgio and Libia companies from Italy.

March 1925:
Tientsin. The Italian Naval Division in Far East (Comando Navale Estremo Oriente) is comprised of cruisers RN SAN GIORGIO (F), LIBIA and gunboats SEBASTIANO CABOTO and ERMANNO CARLOTTO.

China is in the midst of a civil war between the Kuomintang Party’s Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalists and Mao Tse-Tung’s Communist Army. The goal of both the Nationalists and Communists is to rid China of foreigners who have usurped China. The Communists move troops to attack Nanking, capital of Nationalist China.

Five countries send warships to Nanking to evacuate their citizens if necessary. Italy sends CARLOTTO. France sends sloop MARNE. The United States sends destroyers USS JOHN D. FORD (DD-228), PILLSBURY (DD-227), SIMPSON (DD-221), NOA (DD-343) and PRESTON (DD-327). Great Britain sends HMS CARADOC, CARLISLE, EMERALD, GNAT, PETERSFIELD, VERITY, VETERAN, VINDICTIVE, WILD SWAN, WISHART, WITHERINGTON and WOLSEY. Japan sends IJN HODERO, KATATA, MOMO and SHINOKI.

27 July 1928:
Changsha is attacked by the Communists. Gunboats USS PALOS (PG-16), HMS TEAL and IJN KOTOGA standby to send landing parties ashore to rescue civilians. LtCdr R. D. Tisdale's USS PALOS fires 67 three-inch and about 2,000 rounds from her Lewis guns. In turn, USS PALOS suffers some damage. RN CARLOTTO and HMS APHIS join her in the fight.

Count Galeazzo Ciano, son-in-law of dictator Benito Mussolini, is appointed secretary at Peking's Italian legation and soon after, Minister Plenipotentiary in Shanghai.

18 September 1931: The "Mukden Incident":
Liutiaohu, about 25 miles from Mukden (now Shenyang), the capital of Manchuria. Japanese soldiers detonate an explosive on the Japanese-owned Southern Manchurian Railway. Chinese soldiers retaliate with gunfire. The Japanese Kwantung Army reinforces their troops and attacks Mukden. The “Mukden Incident” is the beginning of the Pacific War. After the Mukden Incident, Chiang Kai-Shek chooses Ciano as a go-between with the Japanese.

28 January 1932: The "First Shanghai Incident":
Shanghai. A Japanese Special Naval Landing Force (SNLF) of about 2,500 troops is dispatched to evict two divisions of the Chinese 19th Route Army from the city. Later, the badly outnumbered Shanghai SNLF is reinforced by 50,000 IJA troops who encircle the Chinese and force a truce.

4 March 1932:
Shanghai. In response to increased tensions in Shanghai, heavy cruiser RN TRENTO and destroyer RN ESPERO arrive from Italy from which they departed on 28 January. They cruised via the Suez Canal and called at Aden, Yemen, Colombo, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Singapore.

May 1932:
Shanghai. USS HOUSTON (CA-30) passes nearby anchored TRENTO and ESPERO. A USN intelligence officer photographs the Italian warships.

14 May 1932:
TRENTO and ESPERO depart Shanghai for La Spezia. Italy.

May 1936:
CARLOTTO departs Shanghai for Hankow and Nanking. Returns to Shanghai.

June 1936:
Departs Shanghai for Hankow and Nanking. Returns to Shanghai.

October 1936:
Departs Shanghai for Hankow and Nanking. Returns to Shanghai.

22 December 1936:
Departs Nanking.

30 December 1936:
CARLOTTO arrives at Shanghai.

16 February 1937:
Departs Shanghai.

18 February 1937:
Arrives at Nanking.

22 February 1937:
Departs Nanking.

24 February 1937:
Arrives at Kichow.

26 February 1937:
Departs Kichow.

26 February 1937:
Arrives at Hankow.

6 March 1937:
Departs Hankow.

9 March 1937:
Arrives at I-chang.

12 March 1937:
Departs I-chang.

15 March 1937:
Arrives at Hankow.

18 March 1937:
Departs Hankow.

18 March 1937:
Arrives at Kichow.

19 March 1937:
Departs Kichow.

19 March 1937:
Arrives at Kiukiang.

25 March 1937:
Departs Kiukiang.

26 March 1937:
Arrives at Nanking.

30 March 1937:
Departs Nanking.

1 April 1937:
Arrives at Shanghai.

7 July 1937: The Marco Polo Bridge (The"First China Incident") Incident:
Hun River, Lukuokiao, China. After night maneuvers at the bridge, the Japanese discover a soldier missing and assume the Chinese captured him. They demand entry to Beijing to look for him, but the Chinese refuse. The Japanese shell the city and an undeclared war begins.

When fighting breaks out between Japanese and Chinese troops, Cdr Bacigalupi of gunboat RN LEPANTO is in charge of the first Italian defense detachment composed of part of CARLOTTO's and LEPANTO's crews. The Tientsin-based "Battaglione Italiano in Cina" soon joins these forces.

August 1937:
The Italian Comando Supremo decides to send soldiers and light cruiser RN RAIMONDO MONTECUCCOLI from Naples to reinforce the Italians at Tientsin.

15 September 1937:
MONTECUCCOLI arrives at Shanghai, just as the Japanese first begin bombing the city. By now, at least 1,200 Italian Army and Navy troops are in China to defend the safety and interests of 500 to 600 resident Italians.

9 October 1937: The Conquest of Shanghai:
Shanghai is occupied by Japanese forces.

12 December 1937: The"China Incident."
Yangtze River, above Nanking. LtCdr James J. Hughes' river gunboat USS PANAY (PR-5) is attacked and sunk by IJN aircraft. Three men are killed and 43 sailors and five passengers are wounded.

23 December 1938:
Light cruiser BARTOLEMEO COLLEONI arrives at Shanghai to replace MONTECUCCOLI. While on "China Station", COLLEONI visits Tsingtao, Chefoo, Chingwantao, Wei-Have, and Petaiho in China, Dairen, Manchuria, and Kobe, Yokohama and Nagasaki, Japan.

1 October 1939:
After the German invasion of Poland, Comando Supremo recalls COLLEONI. The headquarters of the Italian Naval Division in Far East is moved to LEPANTO.

10 June 1940-8 September 1943:
During Italy's participation in World War II, the Regia Marina Italiana’s presence in China consists of CARLOTTO located in Tientsin and LEPANTO in Shanghai, and some detachments of troops assigned to the defense of the small Italian commercial interests.

8 September 1943:
Rome. The Italian armistice is announced.

9 September 1943:
Shanghai. Lt Roberto De Leonardis’ CARLOTTO and LtCdr Morante’s LEPANTO are both scuttled to prevent their capture. Their crews are interned by the Japanese. [2]

15 October 1943:
CARLOTTO is raised and salvaged by the Japanese. Transferred to Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Kiangnan Dockyard for repairs and refit.

1 November 1943:
Kiangnan, Shanghai. While still undergoing repairs, CARLOTTO is enlisted in the IJN as a gunboat and renamed NARUMI. She is attached to Sasebo Naval District and assigned to the Yangtze Area Special Base Force at the China Area Fleet. Lt Yoshida Komao is the CO

5 November 1943:
Reassigned to China Area Fleet, Lower Yangtze Guard Force. Spends the whole month at Shanghai.

6 December 1943:
The Italian 3-in AA guns are landed. The new armament suite includes one Type 96 25-mm twin AA mount, one Type 93 13.2-mm twin machine gun and four Type 92 7.7-mm machine guns. In addition, the gunboat carries twenty Type 38 Arisaka rifles and five Type 14 Nambu pistols for her landing party. During the repairs the IJN radio equipment is likewise installed. The assigned crew includes 57 officers and men.

12 December 1943:
The repairs are completed. Undergoes tests to measure the metacentric height off Shanghai on the following day.

15-27 December 1943:
NARUMI makes several short test runs to test the machinery and the new armament. Departs Shanghai at 1200 and returns at 1600.

18 December 1943:
Departs Shanghai at 1000 and returns at 1640.

20 December 1943:
Departs Shanghai at 1100 and returns at 1600.

21 December 1943:
Departs Shanghai at 1000 and returns at 1840.

24 December 1943:
Departs Shanghai at 1610 and returns at 2030.

27 December 1943:
Departs Shanghai at 1000 and returns at 1440.

31 December 1943:
Repairs are completed. At 1200 departs Shanghai for Anking.

2 January 1944:
At 1531 arrives at Chinkiang.

3 January 1944:
At 0800 departs Chinkiang. At 1547 arrives at Nanking. Conducts patrols in the Anking and Hankow areas.

6 January 1944:
At 0830 departs Nanking.

7 January 1944:
At 1754 arrives at Anking.

10 January 1944:
At 1700 departs Anking.

11 January 1944:
At 0337 arrives at Kiukiang.

13 January 1944:
At 1156 arrives at Tienchiachen.

14 January 1944:
At 0750 departs Tienchiachen.

15 January 1944:
At 1608 arrives at Hankow.

19 January 1944:
At 1250 departs Hankow.

20 January 1944:
At 1057 arrives at Hwangju.

22 January 1944:
At 0857 departs Hwangju.

23 January 1944:
At 1049 arrives at Tienchiachen.

24 January 1944:
At 0818 departs Tienchiachen. At 0929 arrives at Wuhsieh and departs at 1327. At 1627 arrives at Kiukiang.

2 February 1944:
At 1830 departs Kiukiang on patrol. At 2037 arrives at Hsinchow.

3 February 1944:
At 0800 departs Hsinchow.

4 February 1944:
At 1515 arrives At Hankow. Undergoes repairs.

17 February 1944:
At 1445 departs Hankow on patrol. At 1700 arrives at Yangluo.

19 February 1944:
At 1455 departs Yangluo.

21 February 1944:
At 1936 arrives at Kiukiang.

24 February 1944:
After 1750, Kiukiang town and port are raided by nine North American B-25 "Mitchell" bombers. NARUMI and SETA, anchored off Kiukiang, fire back from their AA guns. During the 65-minute attack neither of them is hit.

Late February 1944:
Commences regular patrols between Kiukiang and Anking in company of SETA or TATARA. During that time NARUMI is based in Kiukiang.

2 March 1944:
At 1850 departs Kiukiang

3 March 1944:
At 2154 arrives at Anking.

14 March 1944:
At 0819 departs Anking on patrol.

15 March 1944:
At 0938 arrives at Kiukiang.

17 March 1944:
At 1210 departs Kiukiang.

18 March 1944:
At 1051 arrives at Hankow.

30 March 1944:
At 1445 departs Hankow on patrol.

31 March 1944:
At 0954 arrives at Kiukiang.

April 1944:
As a result of various regulation infringements, 12 Italian officers from CARLOTTO and LEPANTO are transferred to the Kiang Wang POW Camp near Shanghai. They remain there until the end of the war.

7 April 1944:
At 0749 departs Kiukiang on patrol. At 1448 arrives at Anking.

8 April 1944:
At 1346 departs Anking.

9 April 1944:
At 1655 arrives at Tung Liu.

10 April 1944:
At 0822 departs Tung Liu and at 1012 arrives at Anking.

11 April 1944:
At 1721 departs Anking. At 2054 arrives off Tungling.

12 April 1944:
At 0613 departs Tungling.

13 April 1944:
At 1042 arrives at Anking.

24 April 1944:
At 1628 departs Anking.

25 April 1944:
At 1739 arrives at Nanking.

30 April 1944:
At 0947 departs Nanking on patrol.

1 May 1944:
At 0108 arrives at Tatung and departs at 0553. At 1139 arrives at Anking.

12 May 1944:
At 1756 departs Anking. At 2231 arrives at Hsiang Kou Chien.

13 May 1944:
At 0155 departs Hsiang Kou Chien and at 0906 arrives at Kiukiang.

20 May 1944:
At 1554 departs Kiukiang on patrol. At 2034 arrives at Hsiang Kou Chien.

21 May 1944:
At 0628 departs Hsiang Kou Chien. At 0801 arrives at Anking and departs there at 1834. At 2236 arrives at Tuchiao.

22 May 1944:
At 0653 departs Tuchiao. At 1100 arrives at Wuhu and departs at 1553. At 2041 arrives at Nanking.

27 May 1944:
At 1025 departs Nanking on patrol.

28 May 1944:
At 0734 arrives at Anking.

3 June 1944:
At Anking. After 0105 the port is raided by several B-25s and four-engined Consolidated B-24 "Liberators", dropping bombs from 6,600 ft altitude. NARUMI and TATARA, anchored off Anking, fire back at the attackers. Neither gunboat is hit, although one medium caliber bomb lands 550 yds aft of TATARA. Later that day at 1750 NARUMI departs Anking for Kiukiang.

4 June 1944:
At 0654 arrives at Kiukiang.

12 June 1944:
Arrives back at Anking.

18 June 1944:
Anking. At about 1300, gunboats NARUMI, SUMA, ATAMI and TATARA are attacked by three North American B-25 "Mitchell" medium bombers escorted by twelve Lockheed P-38 "Lightning" fighters. NARUMI is not hit, but after firing 455 25-mm rounds, her Type 96 AA gun suffers a striker pin breakage. [2]

21 June 1944:
At 1005 departs Anking on patrol.

22 June 1944:
At 1702 arrives at Hukow.

23 June 1944:
At 0422 departs Hukow. At 1155 arrives at Anking and departs at 1655. At 2158 arrives at Tungling.

24 June 1944:
At 0455 departs Tungling.

25 June 1944:
At 0800 arrives at Nanking.

29 June 1944:
At 1053 departs Nanking.

30 June 1944:
At 1248 arrives at Wuhu and departs at 1656.

1 July 1944:
At 0826 arrives at Anking.

7 July 1944:
At 1900 departs Anking on patrol.

8 July 1944:
At 0845 arrives at Taiyangchow and departs there at 1755. At 2257 arrives at Hsinkaikou.

9 July 1944:
At 0623 departs Hsinkaikou.At 0952 arrives back at Anking.

21 July 1944:
After a boiler breakdown, the CO of NARUMI requests his ship to be sent to Kiangnan Dockyard for repairs.

27 July 1944:
At 1700 departs Anking. At 2220 arrives at Tatung.

28 July 1944:
At 0621 departs Tatung and at 0930 arrives at Taiyangchow. At 1800 departs Taiyangchow and at 2103 arrives at Wuhu.

29 July 1944:
At 0620 departs Wuhu. At 1233 arrives at Nanking.

30 July 1944:
At 0402 departs Nanking.

31 July 1944:
At 1920 arrives at Woosung.

1 August 1944:
NARUMI arrives at Shanghai. Undergoes machinery repairs at Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Kiangnan Dockyard until 25 August. During that time, an additional Type 93 twin 13.2-mm AA mount is installed. The crew strength is increased to 59.

26 August 1944:
At 1149 departs Shanghai for Anking.

28 August 1944:
At 0032 arrives at Chinkiang and departs at 0600. At 1210 arrives at Nanking.

31 August 1944:
NARUMI makes a refueling stop at Nanking, then at 1000 continues for Anking.

1 September 1944:
At 1440 arrives at Anking.

3 September 1944:
At 1854 departs Anking.

4 September 1944:
At 0648 arrives at Kiukiang.

7 September 1944:
B-25s attack Kiukiang. NARUMI suffers no damage.

16 September 1944:
At 2020 departs Kiukiang.

17 September 1944:
At 0806 arrives back at Kiukiang.

18 September 1944:
At 0830 departs Kiukiang.

19 September 1944:
At 0854 arrives at Anking.

22 September 1944:
At 1800 departs Anking. At 2258 arrives at Tongling.

23 September 1944:
At 0600 departs Tongling. At 1500 arrives at Nanking.

26 September 1944:
At 0023 B-25s attack Nanking but NARUMI suffers no damage.

28 September 1944:
At 0850 departs Nanking.

29 September 1944:
At 0726 arrives at Anking.

5 October 1944:
On the evening, departs Anking for Kiukiang.

6 October 1944:
Early on the morning arrives at Kiukiang.

7 October 1944:
Around the noon, Kiukiang is raided by Curtiss P-40 "Warhawk" fighters. After 1255, two fighters attack NARUMI, strafing her from 260 ft altitude and dropping bombs. She receives one direct hit to port fuel tank No. 6 and two near misses. The bomb tears a 23-inch wide hole in the upper deck, but fails to explode; the fragments from the near misses perforate the overhead of a crew space. There is no fire, but the steering engine is temporarily disabled. Two sailors receive slight injuries. SETA which is nearby receives no damage, RAZAN MARU (ex British PAOWO) suffers damage from near misses.

8 October 1944:
The repair ship HAYASE (ex-Chinese CHIN CHIANG) arrives at 0350 and commences the repairs of NARUMI. Despite of the frequent air raid warnings, the work is completed by the following day.

10 October 1944:
NARUMI is reassigned to the 24th Gunboat Division with TATARA (flagship of the 24th Division), still based at Kiukiang.

15 November 1944:
At 0750 NARUMI and TATARA depart Kiukiang and travels to Hankow to embark supplies.

17 November 1944:
At 0845 arrives at Hankow.

21 November 1944:
At 0957 NARUMI and TATARA depart Hankow.

26 November 1944:
At 1350 arrives at Kiukiang.

2 December 1944:
At 1618 while anchored at Kiukiang, NARUMI and TATARA are attacked by six P-51 "Mustangs", but receive no damage.

4 December 1944:
NARUMI is attacked by six P-51 "Mustangs". No damage.

5 December 1944:
At 1107, NARUMI is attacked by five P-51 "Mustangs". No damage.

7 December 1944:
After 1317, two P-51 Mustangs attack the port of Kiukiang, strafing NARUMI and TATARA, as well as the freighters MARUKO MARU (ex-LUNG SHAN) and RAZAN MARU (ex PAOWO). No damage.

12 December 1944:
USAAF aircraft bomb and damage river gunboat KATATA near Kiukiang.

18 December 1944:
Off Kiukiang. After 1510, three P-51s attack TATARA, NARUMI, SETA and KATADA.

19 December 1944:
At 0556 NARUMI and TATARA depart Kiukiang towing damaged gunboat KATATA.

20 December 1944:
At 1458 arrive at Nanking.

22 December 1944:
At 0957 NARUMI departs Nanking. TATARA and KATATA proceed to Shanghai.

23 December 1944:
At 1615 arrives at Kiukiang.

14 January 1945:
Around noon, NARUMI departs Kiukiang for Hankow in company of SETA.

15 January 1945:
At 0400 returns to Kiukiang. Eighteen 14th Air Force North American B-25 "Mitchell" medium bombers of the 341st Bomb Group, supported by 20 North American P-51 "Mustang" and Curtiss P-40 "Warhawk" fighters attack Hankow. NARUMI is damaged in the raid.

16 January 1945:
After the sundown at 2018, NARUMI departs Kiukiang for Shanghai, making stops at Anking and Nanking.

17 January 1945:
At 0630 arrives at Anking and departs there at 1920.

18 January 1945:
At 1319 arrives at Nanking.

20 January 1942:
At 0700 departs Nanking.

21 January 1945:
At 1705 arrives at Woosung.

22 January 1945:
At 0825 departs Woosung and at 1000 arrives at Kiukiang.

23 January-20 February 1945:
Dry-docked at Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Kiangnan Dockyard in No. 2 dry-dock.

20 February 1945:
At 1110 undocked. Remains at Kiangnan.

1 March 1945:
At 1000 departs Kiangnan for a short test run, returns on that same day, at 1145.

5 March 1945:
At 0945 departs Kiangnan and at 1000 arrives at Shanghai.

8 March 1945:
Lt Koike Mitsuo is appointed the next CO.

10 March 1945:
LtCdr Yoshida Komao leaves the ship. 13 March 1945: At 1448 departs Shanghai, and arrives at Woosung at 1730.

14 March 1945:
At 0800 departs Woosung for Anking with gunboat SUMA. In the evening at 1826, stops at Kiangyin.

18 March 1945:
In the evening, departs Kiangyin with SUMA, but has to return after the daybreak when freshly-laid mines are detected enroute.

19 March 1945:
Yangtze River. At 0814 returns to Kiangyin to wait until the river is swept for mines. Departs and stops briefly at Puyukiangchen on the other side of the river to Kianyin. Then proceeds to Tianshen Chiao. At 1435, NARUMI and SUMA depart Kiangyin. At 1526, 51 miles above Kiangyin, SUMA grazes a mine laid by 14th Air Force planes on 4 Mar ‘45. An explosion amidships under her port boiler room causes a heavy leak, demolishing most of the upper works. A list to port side begins, increasing until SUMA finally sinks at 32-00N, 120-00E. In a three-hour rescue operation, NARUMI evacuates 40 wounded and 36 survivors. Eight sailors are killed. At 1907 departs the area.

20 March 1945:
At 2023 NARUMI returns to Shanghai, where SUMA's wounded are sent to the No. 1 Naval Hospital.

2 April 1945:
At Shanghai. After 1020, NARUMI is attacked by several P-51 fighters, but receives no damage.

4 April 1945:
At 0900 departs Shanghai but returns at 1232.

5 April 1945:
At 0700 departs Shanghai for Anking, making a stop at Kiangyin, at 1930.

6 April 1945:
At 0625 departs Kiangyin.

7 April 1945:
At 1905 arrives at Nanking.

9 April 1945:
At 0622 departs Nanking.

10 April 1945:
At 1103 arrives at Anking.

15 April 1945:
Reassigned to Anking Area Fleet.

24 May 1945:
Yangtze Area Special Base Force HQ orders all river gunboats to land their armament and ammunition at the nearest port and to proceed to Shanghai thereafter.

10 June 1945:
At 0600, departs Anking for Shanghai in company of TATARA. En route NARUMI stops at Yanhu to land two twin 13.2-mm AA machine guns.

13 June 1945:
At 1615, arrives at Shanghai. By that time one 25 mm twin AA mount and four 7.7-mm machine guns are still embarked. Soon thereafter she is transferred to Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Kiangnan Dockyard where she remains until the end of the war.

NARUMI's guns are landed and used for land defenses.

15 September 1945:
Shanghai, Mitsubishi Shipbuilding's Kiangnan Dockyard. NARUMI is surrendered to the Chinese. Later, she is ceded to Nationalist China and renamed KIANG KUN.

30 September 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

Captured by the Peoples’ Republic of China forces. Further fate unknown.

Authors' Notes:
[1] RN = Regia Nautica, later Regia Marina, currently Marina Militare or Italian Navy. Ermanno Carlotto was an Italian officer killed in 1900 during the Boxer rebellion.

[2] There is some confusion as to whether ERMANNO CARLOTTO was, in fact, scuttled by her crew prior to her capture by the IJN. After analyzing wartime records and interviewing former sailors of NARUMI, naval historian Tamura Toshio concluded that ERMANNO CARLOTTO might have been confused with the other Italian gunboat LEPANTO (later renamed OKITSU) scuttled in the same location.

[3] The bombers were probably 75-mm cannon-equipped B-25Gs, since they left behind several unusually large craters.

Thanks go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro of Japan and Mr. Gilbert Casse of France.

-Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

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