(KASHIMA, prewar)

IJN KASHIMA: Tabular Record of Movement

© 1997-2017 Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp
Revision 5

6 October 1938:
Yokohama. Laid down at Mitsubishi's shipyard as Cruiser No. 73.

31 March 1939:
Named KASHIMA and provisionally attached to Kure Naval District.

25 September 1939:

25 September 1939:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Miyazato Shutoku (40)(the currect CEO of KATORI) is appointed the Chief Equipping Officer (CEO) of KASHIMA as additional duty.

1 November 1939:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Ichioka Hisashi (42)(former CO of YURA) is appointed the CEO of KATORI and KASHIMA as additional duty. Captain Miyazato is reassigned as the CEO of repair ship AKASHI.

10 March 1940:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Nabeshima Shunsaku (42)(former ComSubDiv 7) is appointed the CEO. Captain Ichioka resumes full-time duty as the CEO of KATORI.

31 May 1940:
Completed and attached to Kure Naval District. Captain Nabeshima is the Commanding Officer.

1 June 1940:
Assigned to the Training Squadron with KATORI.

28 July 1940:
KASHIMA and KATORI participate in the last pre-war midshipman cruise visiting Etajima, Ominato, Dairen, Port Arthur and Shanghai.

September 1940:
Returns to Yokosuka.

1 November 1940:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Takeda Isamu (43)(former CO of OI) is appointed the CO. Captain Nabeshima is reassigned as the CO of KINU.

15 November 1940:
Reassigned to the Fourth Fleet, serving as the flagship of CruDiv 18.

1 September 1941:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Senda Kinji (45)(former CO of SHURI MARU) is appointed the CO. Captain Takeda is later reassigned as the CO of ISE.

1 December 1941:
KASHIMA is assigned as the flagship of Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Inoue Shigeyoshi's (former CO of HIEI) Fourth Fleet based at Truk, Caroline Islands.

8-23 December 1941: The Invasions of Wake Island and Guam:
At Truk.

18 January 1942: Operation "R" - The Invasions of Rabaul and Kavieng:
Sorties from Truk to cover the landings.

31 January 1942:
Arrives at Truk.

20 February 1942:
Vice Admiral Wilson Brown Jr's (later President Roosevelt's Naval Aide) Task Force 11's USS LEXINGTON (CV-2) is en route to attack Rabaul. The task force is spotted by a Kawanishi H6K Mavis flying boat of the Yokohama Kokutai. Since surprise is lost, the attack is cancelled.

20 February 1942:
Departs Truk in an unsuccessful pursuit of Task Force 11.

23 February 1942:
Returns to Truk.

March-April 1942:
Truk. Guard ship duties.

1 May 1942:
Departs Truk with Vice Admiral Inoue embarked.

4 May 1942: Operation "MO" – The Invasions of Tulagi and Port Moresby:
KASHIMA arrives at Rabaul, New Britain to direct operations.

That same day, Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Kajioka Sadamichi's (former CO of KISO) Port Moresby Attack Force departs Rabaul towards the Jomard Pass in the Louisiade Archipelago with DesRon 6's light cruiser YUBARI, four destroyers and a patrol boat escorting Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Abe Koso's (former CO of HIEI) Transport Force of 12 transports and a minesweeper.

4 May 1942:The Battle of the Coral Sea:
Tulagi, Solomons. Rear Admiral (MOH '14/later Admiral) Frank J. Fletcher’s (former CO of VERMONT, BB-20)Task Force 17 attacks Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Shima Kiyohide's (former CO of OI) Tulagi Invasion Force. SBD dive-bombers and TBD torpedo-bombers from USS YORKTOWN (CV-5) sink a destroyer, three minesweepers and damage four other ships.

5 May 1942:
Fletcher's force turns north to engage Vice Admiral (Admiral, posthumously) Takagi Takeo's (former CO of MUTSU) Carrier Strike Force's SHOKAKU and ZUIKAKU. SBDs and TBDs from YORKTOWN and LEXINGTON (CV-2) sink Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Goto Aritomo's (former CO of MUTSU) light carrier SHOHO off Misima Island. In turn, Japanese planes damage oiler NEOSHO (AO-23) and sink destroyer SIMS (DD-409).

8 May 1942:
Planes from LEXINGTON sight Takagi's Strike Force. SBDs from YORKTOWN and LEXINGTON damage SHOKAKU and force her retirement. ZUIKAKU's air group suffers heavy losses. Takagi's bombers and attack planes strike Task Force 17 and damage YORKTOWN and LEXINGTON. Gasoline vapors ignite, triggering massive explosions that cause LEXINGTON to be abandoned. Later, she is scuttled by destroyer PHELPS (DD-360).

13 May 1942:
The Battle of the Coral Sea halts the Japanese thrust toward Port Moresby and they are forced to cancel Operation MO. KASHIMA departs Rabaul.

14 May 1942:
Arrives at Kavieng, New Ireland then departs.

16 May 1942:
Arrives at Truk.

16 May 1942:
At Truk as guard ship until July.

19 July 1942:
The flag of the Fourth Fleet is moved ashore.

20 July 1942:
Departs Truk for Kure.

26 July 1942:
Arrives at Kure. Refit.

1-25 August 1942:
Drydocked. During refit, four 5-cm saluting guns are removed and replaced by two Type 96 twin-mount 25-mm guns.

26 August 1942:
Departs Kure. Resumes duty as flagship of the Fourth Fleet.

3 September 1942:
Arrives at Truk. Guard ship duties.

7 September 1942:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Takada Sakae (46)(former XO of MUTSU) is appointed the CO. Captain Senda is reassigned to the Naval College as an instructor.

2 October 1942:
Truk. KASHIMA moves to the fleet anchorage to participate in antiaircraft training.

8 October 1942:
A conference is held aboard KASHIMA to discuss the construction of defenses in the Pacific. The conference is attended by Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Ugaki Matome (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of Staff, Combined Fleet, and Army officials of the Defense Construction Department.

26 October 1942:
Vice Admiral, the Baron, Samejima Tomoshige (former CO of NAGATO) assumes command of the Fourth Fleet. Vice Admiral Inoue is reposted as Director of the Etajima Naval Academy.

17 November 1942:
Departs Truk on an inspection cruise of the Marshall Islands, escorted by ASANAGI and YUNAGI.

20 November 1942:
Arrives at Kwajalein.

22-24 November 1942:
At Roi.

24 November 1942:
Departs Kwajalein.

25 November 1942:
Arrives at Jaluit, then at Imieji.

29 November 1942:
Departs Imieji escorted by YUNAGI.

2 December 1942:
Arrives back at Truk.

2 December-1 April 1943:
At Truk. Guard ship.

1 April 1943:
Vice Admiral Kobayashi Masami (former CO of YAMASHIRO) assumes command of the Fourth Fleet. Vice Admiral Samejima is reposted as CinC, Eighth Fleet.

8 April 1943:
Departs Truk.

15 April 1943:
Arrives at Kure. Refit.

21 April 1943:

27 April 1943:

19 May 1943:
Departs Kure.

21 May 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

24 May 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

29 May 1943:
Arrives at Truk. Training thereafter.

29 May-27 August 1943:
At Truk.

1 July 1943:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Hayashi Shigechika (45)(former XO of CHIKUMA) is appointed the CO. Captain Takada Sakae is reassigned to the Naval Academy as an instructor.

27 August 1943:
Departs Truk in response to the increasing American threat to the Gilberts and the Marshalls.

30 August 1943:
Arrives at Kwajalein.

13 October 1943:
Departs Kwajalein. Arrives at Roi Island.

21 October 1943:
Departs Roi. Arrives at Kwajalein. Captain Kajiwara Sueyoshi (47)(former CO of SHURI MARU) is appointed the CO. Captain Hayashi is later reassigned as CO of TAKAO.

5 November 1943:
Departs Kwajalein.

8 November 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

1 November 1943:
Relieved as flagship, Fourth Fleet by light cruiser NAGARA.

10 November 1943:
Designated as a training ship attached to the Kure Training Division with sister KASHII.

18 November 1943:
Departs Truk with submarine tender CHOGEI, escorted by destroyers WAKATSUKI and YAMAGUMO.

N of Truk. The same day, LtCdr Fred Connaway is on his first patrol as USS SCULPIN's (SS-191) skipper. His mission is to intercept any IJN forces leaving Truk to oppose the forthcoming American invasion of Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. Division CO, Captain John P. Cromwell is aboard to coordinate wolfpack operations between SCULPIN, SEARAVEN (SS-196) and, if conditions warrant, either the SPEARFISH (SS-190) or APOGON (SS-308).

That night, SCULPIN makes radar contact with the CHOGEI group. Connaway makes an "end run" on the surface to attack the next morning.

19 November 1943:
Cdr Connaway prepares to attack the convoy. At 0640 (JST), YAMAGUMO's port bridge watch reports a surfacing submarine at port beam at 8,000 meters. The submarine then crash-dives. YAMAGUMO closes the range at 26 knots and drops three depth charges without effect. At 0703, she drops three more DCs, also without effect.

At 0706, YAMAGUMO commences a sonar search. At 0743, she acquires an echo off the starboard bow at 2,400 meters. At 0752, YAMAGUMO charges and drops 10 DCs. This salvo knocks out SCULPIN's depth gauge. SCULPIN remains submerged for several hours.

At 1109, Connaway attempts to come to periscope depth, but the damaged depth gauge sticks. SCULPIN broaches and is spotted by YAMAGUMO off the starboard bow, only 1000 meters away. Connaway crash dives. At 1125, YAMAGUMO drops four 4 DCs on the submarine's assumed position. At 1131, she drops three more DCs at the same position.

The CHOGEI group steams away leaving the YAMAGUMO behind to deal with the submarine. YAMAGUMO resumes sonar search and at 1143, acquires the target off the port beam at 1,850 meters. YAMAGUMO charges and drops 10 DCs. At 1243, YAMAGUMO drops 10 more DCs

. This attack knocks out SCULPIN's sound heads and she takes on water. Connaway receives reports that cracks have appeared around the torpedo tubes fore and aft and that SCULPIN's batteries are nearly depleted. Connaway decides to surface and fight it out with his deck gun to give the rest of his crew time to Abandon Ship.

At 1256, SCULPIN surfaces 2000 meters off YAMAGUMO's starboard bow. Her conning tower shows signs of pressure damage and both periscopes are bent. At 1300, YAMAGUMO main armament and her 25 mm AA guns prepare for engagement. SCULPIN lies motionless on the surface. At 1301, YAMAGUMO fires her first gun salvo and scores several hits along the hull of the submarine now off her starboard beam. At 1302, the destroyer's 25-mm AA guns take SCULPIN's conning tower under fire and score several hits.

SCULPIN's gunners man both the deck gun and the AA guns, but their return fire is wildly erratic. A shell hits the conning tower and kills Connaway, the bridge watch and the gun crew. Several AA gunners are cut down, but the rest continue to return fire, but SCULPIN's gunners prove no match against YAMAGUMO's quick firing main battery. Dense black smoke billows from the hull area abaft the conning tower. The Engineering Officer assumes command and orders Abandon Ship and SCULPIN scuttled.

Captain Cromwell possesses secret intelligence information about "Ultra" code-breaking and the forthcoming invasion of the Gilbert Islands. Fearing he might reveal this information under torture, Cromwell decides to go down with SCULPIN to escape capture. He is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.

At 1307, SCULPIN is listing and incapable of fighting back. YAMAGUMO checks fire. At 1317, YAMAGUMO lowers her boats to pick up survivors, but the sea is heavy and several submariners drown before they can be rescued. Forty-two of SCULPIN's crew are picked up. One badly wounded sailor is thrown back into the sea because of his condition. YAMAGUMO detaches for Truk. [1]

KASHIMA proceeds to Japan with the CHOGEI group.

20 November 1943: American Operation "Galvanic" - The Invasion of the Gilbert Islands:
Forces under Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Raymond A. Spruance (former CO of MISSISSIPPI, BB-41), Commander, Central Pacific, invade Tarawa and Makin Islands. The invasion fleet of 200 ships includes 13 battleships and 11 carriers.

25 November 1943:
KASHIMA arrives at Kure. She begins refit and reorganization as a training ship.

3 December 1943:
Kure. Captain (later Rear Admiral) Nagai Mitsuru (45)(the current CO of JUNYO in drydock) is appointed the CO of KASHIMA as additional duty. Captain Kajiwara is reassigned as CO of NOSHIRO.

9 December 1943:
Captain Yamazumi Chusaburo (48)(former CoS, 12th Air Fleet) is appointed the CO.

16 December 1943:

21 December 1943:

6 January 1944:

12 January 1944:

23 January-15 April 1944:
Training ship for the Etajima Naval Academy. Makes cruises in the western Inland Sea, staging from Etajima and Kure.

25 March 1944:
KASHIMA is temporarily attached to the General Escort Command.

25 April 1944:
Redesignated as training and patrol vessel.

15 May 1944:
At Kure. Captain Koma Masayoshi (49)(former chief of the Navy Ministry Education Bureau's 2nd Section) is appointed the CO. Captain Yamazumi is later reassigned as the CO of AOBA. KASHIMA begins a refit.

26 May 1944:
The refit is completed.

26 May-11 July 1944:
Makes four transport runs from Shimonoseki to Okinawa carrying army reinforcements and supplies.

11 July 1944: Operation "RO-GO" - Emergency Transport of Second Air Fleet Personnel to Formosa:
KASHIMA is assigned to the operation.

10 August 1944:
Arrives at Naha, Okinawa. Lands 662 personnel and 50 tons of cargo.

16 August 1944:
Arrives at Naha. Lands 594 personnel and 200 tons of cargo.

13 August 1944:
Captain Hiraoka Yoshitaka (47)(former CO of HAKUSA) is appointed the CO.

18 September 1944:
Departs Kure.

20 September 1944:
Arrives at Kagoshima. Embarks elements of the Second Air Fleet.

22 September 1944:
Departs Kagoshima.

25 September 1944:
Arrives at Keelung, Formosa. Disembarks personnel.

1 October 1944:
Arrives at Kure.

12 October 1944:
Departs Kure for Kagoshima.

14 October 1944:
Arrives at Kagoshima.

16 October 1944:
Departs Kagoshima on another transport run.

19 October 1944:
Arrives at Keelung.

20 October 1944:
Formosa Strait. At 0330, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral/MOH) Richard H. O'Kane's (former XO of WAHOO) USS TANG's (SS-306) SJ radar makes contact with a warship at 30,000 yards. O'Kane tracks the target until at 10,000 yards TANG's crew is able to identify the targets as a zigzagging cruiser escorted by two destroyers.

TANG closes to within 2,000 yards of the cruiser's port quarter. From his ONI-41-42 Recognition Manual, O'Kane identifies her as a KATORI-class light cruiser making 20 knots. He sets up at 1,650 yards, but TANG carries only the new Mark 18-1 electric torpedoes. O'Kane realizes that in a stern attack the batteries of the slow 27-knot torpedoes will be exhausted before the torpedoes reach the cruiser. Over the next two hours, O'Kane makes repeated attempts, but fails to close to within the 600 yards spitting distance required for a successful stern shot.[2]

Suddenly, the TANG is illuminated by a destroyer's searchlights. O'Kane crash dives, breaks off his attack on KASHIMA and evades an expected counterattack that does not materialize.

28 October 1944:
KASHIMA arrives at Kure. Resumes training duties in the western Inland Sea.

20 December 1944:
Kure Navy Yard. Begins modifications. KASHIMA's torpedo tubes are replaced by two unshielded twin 40-cal Type 89 127-mm HA-gun mounts. Four triple mount Type 96 25-mm. AA guns and ten single mount guns are also fitted. A Type 22 surface-search radar is fitted. Two Type 2 infra-red communication devices are installed. KASHIMA's aft compartments are modified into concrete-protected magazines for up to 100 depth charges. Four DC throwers, and two DC rails are installed on the quarterdeck. Hydrophones and sonar are also installed.

1 January 1945:
Assigned as the flagship of No. 102 Escort Squadron of the First Escort Fleet. The No. 102 Escort Squadron also includes escort ships (kaibokan) YASHIRO, MIKURA, CD Nos. 2, 33, 34 and 35.

23 January 1945:
Modifications are completed.

6-10 Febuary 1945:
Kure. Eight Type 96 single mount 25-mm AA guns are added bringing her total suite to 38 barrels. A Type 13 air-search radar is installed.

12 February 1945:
Departs Moji escorting a convoy.

18 February 1945:
Arrives at Shanghai.

22 February 1945:
Departs Shanghai for antisubmarine patrols in the Chrisan Island area.

27 February 1945:
South China Sea. 50 miles E of Ningpo. At 0855, a lookout aboard LtCdr (later Captain) Benjamin E. Adam's (former XO of ALBACORE, SS-218) USS RASHER (SS-310) sights KASHIMA at a distance of 10 miles. The cruiser is dropping depth charges and firing her guns. A floatplane, probably a Nakajima E8N2 Dave biplane, is circling over her.

Adams is unsure whether she is attacking a fellow Allied submariner or conducting some sort of trials or ASW exercise. He tracks KASHIMA through his high periscope all day, but does not attack, probably because of the shallow water in the target's area. That night, he loses contact.

13 March 1945:
KASHIMA returns to the Shanghai area.

March-April 1945:
Resumes antisubmarine patrols around the Chrisan Island.

28 April 1945:
Captain Takahashi Chojuro (49)(former CO of RYUHO) is appointed the CO.

May 1945:
Korean waters. Assigned to convoy-escort and submarine-hunting duties.

18 May 1945:
At 2200, KASHIMA departs Chinkai (Chinhae), Korea for the Umajima Channel escorted by kaibokan CD-2 and CD-34.

19 May 1945:
W half of the Tsushima Strait. At 0127 (JST), KASHIMA collides with and sinks cargo ship DAISHIN MARU. A gasoline tank at KASHIMA's port bow is damaged in the collision and a fire ensues. At 0805, she arrives at Chinkai (Chinhae), Korea.

At 0830, USN codebreakers intercept and decrypt a message that reads: “At 2200 18th, KASHIMA, CD-2 and CD-34 departed Chinkai for Umajima Channel. Enroute, at 0118, 19th, at position bearing 183 degrees distance 4000 meters from Tenchozan at the southern extremity of --- KASHIMA rammed the DAISHIN MARU which subsequently sank at -----. KASHIMA suffered slight damage to her (bow ?) but will probably be able to carry out present operations. No casualties or damage was suffered to personnel or material. Arrived Chinkai at 0800.”

5 June 1945: American Operation "Barney":
Tsushima Strait, Japan. Cdr George E. Pierce's USS TUNNY (SS-282) with LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Richard B. Lynch's SKATE (SS-305) and LtCdr Lawrence L. Edge's BONEFISH (SS-223) are organized as the “Polecats” and equipped with FM Sonar gear to detect mines. Once the minefields are detected by the new gear and charted, shipping in the Sea of Japan will be open to predation by American subs.

Japanese passive sonar detects one or more of the Polecats and the alarm is raised. Aboard KASHIMA, the CO of the No. 102 Escort Squadron orders five subchasers to investigate. Aircraft are also called in from the 901st NAG equipped with Mitsubishi G3M Type 96 Nell and G4M Type 1 Betty bombers.

Japanese ASW forces achieve no results. The "Polecats" then foray in the Sea of Japan for the next several weeks sinking several ships, but BONEFISH is sunk on 19 June by the kaibokan OKINAWA.

30 June 1945:
Southern Korea. Arrives at Chinkai (Chinhae). Makes antisubmarine sweeps in the Tsushima Strait.

5 July 1945:
The No. 102 Escort Squadron is deactivated. KASHIMA is attached to Vice Admiral Kishi Fukuji's (former CO of FUSO) First Escort Fleet.

10 July 1945:
Departs Korea for Maizuru. Operates in the Maizuru area and the Sea of Japan.

15 August 1945: End of Hostilities:
At Nanao at war's end.

20 August 1945:
Departs Nanao.

22 August 1945:
Arrives at Kure.

21 September 1945:
KASHIMA is employed as a repatriation transport. A deck house is constructed around her main mast and the barrels of her main armament are sawn off.

27 September 1945:
Captain Iura Shojiro (51)(former commandant of Kure submarine base) is appointed the CO.

2 October 1945:
Captain Yokota Minoru (51)(former commandant of Kure submarine base) is appointed the CO.

5 October 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

10 October 1945: First Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure with the Repatriation Service's carrier HOSHO on a mission to repatriate former Japanese troops in the Pacific.

22 October 1945:
KASHIMA arrives at Jaluit, Marshalls and takes Japanese POWs aboard for repatriation to the homeland.

23 October 1945:
Departs Jaluit.

2 November 1945:
Arrives at Uraga, near Tokyo.

13 November 1945: Second Repatriation Trip:
Departs Uraga, near Tokyo.

23 November 1945:
Arrives at Hollandia, New Guinea. Departs the same day.

24 November 1945:
Arrives at Wewak, New Guinea. Departs the same day.

26 November 1945:
Arrives at Mushu, New Guinea. Departs the same day.

5 December 1945:
Arrives at Okinawa. Departs the same day.

8 December 1945:
Arrives at Otaka, Japan.

31 December 1945: Third Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

8 January 1946:
Arrives at Wewak, New Guinea. Departs the same day.

9 January 1946:
Arrives at Mushu, New Guinea. Departs the same day.

16 January 1946:
Arrives at Otaka. Departs the same day.

17 January 1946:
Arrives at Kure.

25 January 1946: Fourth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Saeki, Japan.

3 February 1946:
Arrives at Rabaul. Departs the same day.

5 February 1946:
Arrives at Fauro Island (collection point for part of Bougainville). Departs the same day.

14 February 1946:
Arrives at Otaka.

2 March 1946: Fifth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

11 March 1946:
Arrives at Singapore. Departs the same day.

13 March 1946:
Arrives at Saigon, French Indochina.

15 March 1946:
Departs Saigon.

29 March 1946:
Arrives at Kure.

3 April 1946: Sixth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

6 April 1946:
Arrives at Hua Lien, Formosa. Departs the same day.

12 April 1946:
Arrives at Saigon. Departs the same day.

20 April 1946:
Arrives at Otaka.

15 May 1946: Seventh Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

22 May 1946:
Arrives at Singapore. Departs the same day.

25 May 1946:
Arrives at Rembang, Indonesia. Departs the same day.

30 May 1946:
Arrives at Otaka.

3 June 1946: Eighth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

9 June 1946:
Arrives at St Jacques, French Indochina. Departs the same day.

15 June 1946:
Arrives at Bangkok, Thailand.

18 June 1946:
Departs Bangkok.

28 June 1946:
Arrives at Uraga.

7 July 1946: Ninth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Uraga.

11 July 1946:
Arrives at Korojima. [3]

14 July 1946:
Departs Korojima.

17 July 1946:
Arrives at Otaka.

22 July 1946: Tenth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

25 July 1946:
Arrives at Korojima.

3 August 1946:
Departs Korojima.

6 August 1946:
Arrives at Uraga.

15 August 1946: Eleventh Repatriation Trip:
Departs Uraga.

19 August 1946:
Arrives at Korojima.

25 August 1946:
Departs Korojima.

29 August 1946:
Arrives at the port of Hakata, Fukuoka, Kyushu.

26 September 1946: Twelfth Repatriation Trip:
Departs Kure.

30 September 1946:
Arrives at Singapore.

3 October 1946
Departs Singapore.

5 October 1946
Arrives at Hong Kong, British Crown Colony. Drydocked.

7 November 1946:
Undocked. Departs Hong Kong.

12 November 1946:
Arrives at Sasebo. During her career as a repatriation vessel, KASHIMA completes transporting some 5,800 former troops to the homeland.

15 November 1946-15 June 1947:
KASHIMA is transferred from the Repatriation Service to the Home Ministry for scrapping.

Near Nagasaki. Broken up at the Kawanami Heavy Industries Koyagishima Yard.

Authors' Notes:
[1] After reaching Truk, 21 of SCULPIN's survivors were placed aboard the escort carrier CHUYO for transport to a POW camp in Japan. The other 20 SCULPIN survivors were put aboard the escort carrier UNYO also bound for a POW camp in Japan.

On 4 Dec 1943, SCULPIN's sister, USS SAILFISH (SS-192) torpedoed CHUYO. When CHUYO sank, all but one of the 21 SCULPIN crewmen were lost. The other 20 SCULPIN crewmen aboard UNYO made Yokosuka safely.

[2] A few days later, on 24 Oct 1944, during another attack on Japanese shipping in the Formosa Strait, one of TANG's poorly designed and poorly tested Mark 18-1 torpedoes makes a circular run and sinks the submarine. O'Kane and eight other topside crewmen are the only survivors and become POWs.

[3] Chinese name unknown. This small island is near Tangku (now Tanggu) near Tientsin. It appears to have been the main loading port for the remnants of the Kwangtung Army.

Thanks go to Peter Cundall of Australia for repatriation data. Thanks also go Jean-François Masson of Canada for assistance in researching IJN officers. Thanks to John Whitman of the USA for info on CNO intercepts of Japanese messages. Thanks also go to "Adm. Gurita" of the Netherlands and to Erich Muehlthaler of Germany.

- Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp.

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