© 2006-2016 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall
18 November 1943:
Osaka. Laid down at Hitachi Zosen Co. Ltd.’s Sakurajima shipyard as Kaibokan No. 328.
25 January 1944:
No. 328 is named YASHIRO.
16 February 1944:
10 May 1944:
LtCdr Yamashita Sadayoshi (61) is posted Chief Equipping Officer.
3 June 1944:
Completed and registered in the Kure Naval District. LtCdr Yamashita is the Commanding Officer. Assigned to the General Escort Command’s First Marine Surface Escort Division. Attached to the Kure Guard Unit.
9 June 1944:
10 June 1944:
Arrives at Moji.
11 June 1944:
At 1530, YASHIRO departs Moji with destroyers ASAGAO and ASAKAZE, kaibokan CD-2 and auxiliary minesweeper TAKUNAN MARU No. 3 escorting convoy MI-07 consisting of MATSUURA, KAMO, SHINKOKU, NISHI (ex British KALGAN), MINO, TAIKAI, KAKOGAWA, MYOGI, GYOKUYO, KOKKO, YULIN, OYO MARUs and tankers KOEI, TAIEI, CHIHAYA, RYUSHO, SAKURA, and SAN LUIS MARUs, Landing ship KORYU (SS 1) and seven unidentified merchant ships. Immediately after leaving port, KOEI MARU develops engine problems and is forced to return to port.
15 June 1944:
At 1040, anchors at Oshima Strait, Amami-Oshima.
16 June 1944:
Departs Oshima Strait.
17 June 1944:
MATSUURA and KAMO MARUs are detached with destroyer ASAGAO and head for Kirun.
18 June 1944:
At 1300, arrives at Takao. Later, ASAGAO rejoins convoy.
23 June 1944:
At 1800, arrives at Manila. CD-2 and ASAGAO are detached.
27 June 1944:
At 0600 departs Manila with addition of KENEI, SHIROGANESAN, YAMAKO (SANKO), TAKETSU (BUTSU), NITTETSU and OEI MARUs.
2 July 1944:
At 1700 arrives at Miri.
5 July 1944:
At 0600 YASHIRO departs Miri with destroyer ASAKAZE escorting convoy MISHI-04 consisting of tankers SHIMPO MARU, KYOEI MARU No.8 and cargo ships KENEI, KOKKO, GYOKUYO, SHIROGANESAN MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No.17. The convoy sails at 9 knots.
9 July 1944:
At 1000 arrives at Singapore.
12 July 1944:
At 1100 YASHIRO departs Singapore with destroyer ASAKAZE escorting convoy SHIMI-06 consisting of HIDA, HAKUBASAN, DAIZEN, KENZUI, TEIFU (ex French BOUGAINVILLE), TOYOFUKU MARU and four unidentified merchant ships.
17 July 1944:
At 1500 arrives at Miri.
19 July 1944:
At 1000 YASHIRO departs Miri with destroyer ASAKAZE, kaibokan CD-3, minelayer MAEJIMA, auxiliary gunboats PEKING and KAZAN (HUASHAN) MARUs escorting convoy MI-10 consisting of tankers HAKUBASAN, MATSUMOTO, SHUNTEN, TAKETSU (BUTSU), CHIYODA, KOSHIN, KOTOKU, NICHINAN (1945 GRT) and SHIMOTSU MARUs and DAIZEN, HIDA, HINAGA, KENZUI, TEIFU (ex French BOUGAINVILLE) and FUYUKAWA MARUs, WAKO GO and eleven unidentified ships.
24 July 1944:
At 2100 arrives at Manila where convoy MI-10 is joined by tankers OEI MARU and KYOEI MARU No. 6 and KAKOGAWA, TSUKUBASAN, ROKKO, RASHIN, KUROGANE, FRANCE, MYOGI MARUs and UNYO MARU No.7.
27 July 1944:
At 1100, reconstituted convoy MI-10 departs Manila.
28 July 1944:
At 1040, LtCdr Francis D. Walker's (USNA ’35) USS CREVALLE (SS-291) torpedoes and sinks HAKUBASAN MARU with 7351-tons of oil and 710-tons of rubber at 16-28N 119-38E. Three crewmen are KIA.
E 30 July 1944:
CD-20 joins the escort, having departed Takao two days before.
2 August 1944:
At 1000 arrives at Takao. YASHIRO and destroyer ASAKAZE are detached. KUROGANE, FRANCE and RASHIN MARUs are probably also detached.
4 August 1944:
At 0930 departs Takao in convoy MI-13 then consisting of tankers SHIMPO, ZUIYO, KYOEI, ATAGO, TEIKON (ex German WINNETOU), SHINCHO, TOKUWA MARUs, OGURA MARU No. 2 and cargo ships SHINKO, HIYORI, KUNIYAMA (KOKUZAN), KIZAN, KAZAN, HIYORI, DURBAN, KOKUSEI, HIGANE, RISSHUN and URAL MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No.1 escorted by kaibokan MATSUWA, KUSAGAKI, CD-14, minesweeper W-18, patrol boat PB-38, destroyer ASAKAZE, auxiliary gunboat CHOHAKUSAN MARU, auxiliary patrol vessels EIFU, NUNOBIKI, FUYO and KASUGA MARUs and Naval transport T-3.
7 August 1944:
At 2205 LtCdr (later Captain) Enrique D. Haskin's (USNA ’33) USS GUITARRO (SS-363) torpedoes and sinks KUSAGAKI at 14-50N 119.57E. Ninety-seven of KUSAGAKI's crew are KIA, 30 others drift throughout the night. In the morning, the survivors, including CO LtCdr Ozaki, are rescued by ASAKAZE and taken to Manila.
8 August 1944:
At 0800 the convoy arrives Manila, sollowed by YASHIRO at 1600. YASHIRO and most of the escorts are detached.
9 August 1944:
At 0200 YASHIRO departs Manila with kaibokan CD-5, CD-6, CD-9, CD-16, MATSUWA and subchaser CH-58 escorting convoy MATA-26 consisting of TAKETSU (BUTSU), IKOMASAN, SHINEI, HINAGA, ASAKA, KACHOSAN, KENEI and ASAKA MARUs and 14 other unidentified merchant ships.
10 August 1944:
At 1029 SHINEI MARU is torpedoed and sunk off Cape Bolinao in 16-15N 119-45E by USS GUITARRO. Soon after Minesweepers W-38 and W-39 arrived to bolster the escort.
12 August 1944:
YASHIRO assists KACHOSAN MARU from the convoy.
14 August 1944:
In the eye of a major typhoon, the war-built tanker TAKETSU (BUTSU) MARU breaks up, although as a result of weather or a drifting mine is unclear. IKOMASAN and ASAKA MARUs are both stranded on islands in the Bashi Islands Group, North of Luzon. Both are later refloated.
16 August 1944:
Arrives at Saei.
19 August 1944:
At 1200 departs Saei escorting EIYO MARU.
20 August 1944:
At 2045 arrives at Takao.
22 August 1944:
At 1410, YASHIRO departs Takao for Manila with torpedo boat HATO, kaibokan CD-8, CD-25, CD-32 and minesweepers W-38, W-39 escorting convoy TAMA-24 consisting of HIOKI, KOTOKU, TEIHOKU (ex-French PERSEE), RAKUTO, BATOPAHAT, GENKAI, YUKIKAWA and MANSHU MARUs and tankers TACHIBANA and YAMAMIZU MARU No. 2.
24 August 1944:
The convoy arrives at Aparri and departs later that day.
25 August 1944:
The convoy briefly shelters at Samalogue. CD-25 and GENKAI MARU are detached from the convoy and go to Pasaleng Bay to offload five MTB's from the deck of damaged HAKKO MARU No. 2 sheltering in the bay with destroyer YUNAGI. YUNAGI is detached and joins TAMA-24.
At 1024, Cdr (later Vice Admiral) Glynn R. Donaho's (USNA ’27) USS PICUDA (SS-382) torpedoes and sinks KOTOKU MARU at 18-42N, 120-49E with the loss of 16 men. At 1026, in the same position, Donaho torpedoes and sinks YUNAGI as the destroyer attempts a counter-attack. 32 sailors are KIA, 19 wounded; CO LtCdr Iwabuchi is among the 202 survivors rescued by CD No. 25. At 1325, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Louis D. McGregor's (USNA ’30) USS REDFISH (SS-395) torpedoes and sinks BATOPAHAT MARU at 18-31N, 120-32E. 17 crewmen and an unknown number of passengers are KIA.
26 August 1944:
The convoy arrives at Lingayen.
27 August 1944:
At 0600 the convoy departs Lingayen and later that day arrives at Santa Cruz.
28 August 1944:
At 0600 departs Santa Cruz. At 2100, arrives at Manila.
30 August 1944:
Departs Manila to provide escort to ships detaching from HI-73 convoy including KIBUITSU, GOKOKU and KAGU MARUs.
2 September 1944:
At 1400 arrives at Manila.
6 September 1944:
At 1200 YASHIRO departs Manila with torpedo boat HIYODORI, minesweepers W-38 and W-39 and one unidentified warship (likely TAKUNAN MARU No. 5) escorting convoy MATA-27 consisting of SHINSEI MARU and eight unidentified merchant ships.
7 September 1944:
At 1730 arrives at North San Fernando.
8 September 1944:
At 0000 departs North San Fernando. At 1900 arrives at Bangui.
9 September 1944:
Departs Bangui. Later off Musa Bay W-38 and W-39 are detached.
11 September 1944:
At 1730 arrives at Takao.
14 September 1944:
Off Takao, Formosa. Early in the morning while departing the harbor to join an outgoing convoy, YASHIRO hits a magnetic mine at 22-42N, 120-12E. Her engines are temporarily disabled and a small leak appears in the bow. Several sailors are injured as a result of the blast.
YASHIRO is taken under tow by MIYAKE and later returns to Takao for makeshift repairs that last until 30 September.
1 October 1944:
At 1700, YASHIRO departs Takao with kaibokan DAITO, patrol boat P-104, auxiliary gunboat KAZAN (HUASHAN) MARU, subchaser CH-21 and auxiliary subchasers CHa-87 and CHa-92 escorting convoy TAMA-28 consisting of TSUYAMA, CHOSAN, MURORAN, MACASSAR, FUYUKAWA, SHINSEI, FUSHIMI, KIZAN, NANKING, EIKO and TAISEI MARUs.
2 October 1944:
Luzon Strait. During a storm, LtCdr Frank C. Acker's (USNA ’32) USS POMFRET (SS-391) torpedoes and sinks TSUYAMA MARU at 20-50N, 121-31E. The ship is carrying 1600 men of the Mobile 18th Infantry Regiment. 1,273 men (73 crewmen and 1,211 soldiers) on board are KIA.
3 October 1944:
At 2000 arrives at Musa.
4 October 1944:
At 0600 departs Musa and at 1930 arrives at Lapoc Bay.
5 October 1944:
At 0700 departs Lapoc Bay and at 1230 arrives at San Fernando.
6 October 1944:
YASHIRO is detached and redirected to a small port near Aparri, Luzon, for generator repairs.
8 October 1944:
At 1745, TAMA-28 arrives at North San Fernando, Philippines. FUSHIMI, FUYUKAWA and SHINSEI MARUs are detached.
9 October 1944:
Meets up and begins escorting HAKOZAKI MARU from HI-77 that had previously detached for Kirun.
11 October 1944:
At 0600, the convoy departs North San Fernando. Off San Vicente, Luzon, YASHIRO is attacked by estimated 50 Grumman F3F-3 "Hellcat" fighters of Vice Admiral (later Admiral posthumously) John S. McCain’s (USNA ’06) Task Force 38, approaching in several waves. Her radio is knocked out, two sailors are KIA and several wounded. Following the attack YASHIRO is redirected to Mako, Pescadores.
15 October 1944:
16 October 1944:
At 1600 arrives at Mako.
22 October 1944:
At 1200, convoy HI-76, now consisting of TEIHOKU (ex-Vichy French PERSEE), KUROSHIO and TOHO MARUs and escorted by KANJU, CD-8 CD-25, CD-130 and escort carrier SHINYO arrive off Mako. KUROSHIO and TOHO MARUs are detached from convoy
HI-76. Both tankers are now guarded by kaibokan KASADO arriving from Takao after being detached from convoy MOMA-05 (NB: KASADO had arrived Takao with convoy MOMA-05, at 1600 on 21 October). Later that day, TEIHOKU MARU, now the final
remaining ship from original convoy HI-76, continues to Moji, escorted by KANJU, CD-8, CD-130 and YASHIRO, the latter joining off Mako that day. (NB: On 24 October, TEIHOKU MARU develops engine troubles. She drifts for a while
but finally recovers and continues to Moji.
24 October 1944:
TENEI MARU has an engine breakdown and falls behind, but later rejoins the convoy.
25 October 1944:
The convoy arrives off Sasebo. YASHIRO is detached and proceeds to Sasebo.
26 October 1944:
At 1130 the convoy TEIHOKU MARU, KANJU, CD-8 and CD-130 arrive off Mutsure-jima. SHINYO had been detached to Kure prior to arrival.
1 November 1944:
At 0800, YASHIRO departs Sasebo.
2 November 1944:
At 0900 arrives at Pusan. Undertakes repairs.
15 November 1944:
The General Escort Command’s 102nd Escort Squadron is formed with YASHIRO, MIKURA, CD-2, CD-33, CD-34 and CD-35.
10 December 1944:
Reassigned to the First Escort Fleet.
31 December 1944:
At 0820, YASHIRO departs Moji for Singapore with kaibokan MIKURA, KURAHASHI and CD-13 and destroyers SHIGURE, HATAKAZE and DesDiv17’s HAMAKAZE and ISOKAZE escorting convoy HI-87 consisting of oilers KAMOI, TENEI, KAIHO, KUROSHIO, MATSUSHIMA, MITSUSHIMA, MIRI, MUNAKATA and SARAWAK MARUs and passenger-cargoman TATSUWA MARU. Light carrier RYUHO provides air cover.
1 January 1945:
Reassigned to the No. 102 Escort Squadron of the First Escort Fleet. The Squadron includes light cruiser KASHIMA (F), kaibokan MIKURA, CD-2, CD-33, CD-34 and CD-35.
3 January 1945:
At 0900 because of expected air raids on Formosa the convoy anchors in the Chusan Island Group.
4 January 1945:
At 1140 RYUHO and SHIGURE are detached to Ssu Chiao Shan.
5 January 1945:
At 0500 the convoy departs the Chusan Island Group. At 1100 RYUHO and SHIGURE rejoin the convoy.
7 January 1945:
East China Sea. The convoy is sighted by "Loughlin's Loopers", a submarine wolf pack consisting of Cdr (later Rear Admiral/MOH) Eugene R. Fluckey's (USNA ’35) USS BARB (SS-220) and LtCdr Evan T. Shepard's (USNA ’35) USS PICUDA (SS-382), later joined by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles E. Loughlin's (USNA ’33) USS QUEENFISH (SS-393). At 0905, in high seas, Shepard's USS PICUDA heavily damages MUNAKATA MARU in the bow. She is assisted by KURAHASHI then proceeds separately to Kirun (Keelung). The convoy anchors at Shinchiku Roadstead, Formosa.
At 1300, the convoy is sighted by the wolfpack and tracked. RYUHO and SHIGURE are detached and proceed to Kirun. At 1830, in dense fog, the convoy anchors temporarily on the W Formosan coast. The ships then split up and enter Takao’s port at different times.
8 January 1945:
At 1200, YASHIRO, MIKURA, CD-13, KAMOI and KAIHO MARU enter Takao Port.
That same day, YASHIRO departs Takao with kaibokan MIKURA and CD-13 escorting fleet oiler KAMOI and KAIHO MARU. At 1330, KAIHO MARU experiences an engine breakdown. YASHIRO and CD-13 remain behind with her. At 2313, KAMOI and the other ships anchor temporarily outside Takao’s port.
9 January 1945:
Takao, Formosa. Vice Admiral John S. McCain's (former CO of USS RANGER, CV-4) Task Force 38 aircraft attack shipping off Takao. At 1200, 17 Grumman TBM "Avengers" and F6F "Hellcats" damage YASHIRO.
10 January 1945:
At 1700, reformed convoy HI-87 departs Takao for Mako, Pescadores. It now consists of SARAWAK, MATSUSHIMA, MITSUSHIMA and HASHIDATE MARUs, KAMOI kaibokan YASHIRO, MIYAKE, KANJU, KURAHASHI, NOMI, SHINNAN, CD-13, CD-41, CD-60 and CD-205. Destroyer SHIGURE rejoins the escort from Kirun. At 1830, MITSUSHIMA MARU suffers an engine breakdown and returns to Takao.
12 January 1945:
At 0600, TENEI MARU's steering breaks down and she is escorted by CD-60 to Hong Kong. Soon after, the rest of the convoy is advised of a pending air raid on Mako and turns about for Hong Kong.
13 January 1945:
At 1100, enters Hong Kong port.
14 January 1945:
At 1100 YASHIRO departs Takao with destroyer ASAGAO, kaibokan CD-1, CD-36 and CD-134 and minesweeper W-21 escorting convoy TAMO-37 consisting of DAIKO, DAII, DAIHO, BRAZIL, MELBOURNE, DAIIKU MARUs and one unidentified merchant ship. 
16 January 1945:
Hong Kong. The air attacks on HI-87 continue from 0820. At 1124, KAMOI is near missed. At 1240, KAMOI and TENEI MARU both suffer direct hits. At 1540, MATSUSHIMA MARU suffers a direct hit and is set on fire. At 1644, NOMI suffers damage from a near miss.
Meanwhile DAIKO MARU in TAMO-37 suffers an engine breakdown and the ship temporarily anchors. CD-130 joins the convoy.
18 January 1945:
YASHIRO and CD-36 arrives at Heiniu Wan, N of Wenchow, with DAIKO MARU and DAII MARU.
19 January 1945:
YASHIRO's CO, LtCdr Yamashita dies of wounds received in the air attacks. He is relieved by an unknown officer, probably the next senior surviving officer.
At 1400 TAMO-37 arrives at Ssu Chiao Shan.
20 January 1945:
At 0708 the main convoy departs Ssu Chiao Shan. At 1020 YASHIRO, CD-36, DAIHO and DAII MARUs depart Heiniu Wan as new convoy TAMO-37B.
22 January 1945:
At 0530 arrives at Ssu Chiao Shan and departs at 1400 the same day.
24 January 1945:
Arrives at Maro-Hae, Chosen.
25 January 1945:
26 January 1945:
Arrives at Chinkai.
28 January 1945:
At 0500 departs Chinkai.
29 January 1945:
At 0400 arrives at Moji.
30 January 1945:
YASHIRO departs Moji and at 1900 arrives at Kure. Undergoes repairs.
LtCdr Honjo Takuji assumes command. YASHIRO then conducts an anti-submarine patrol off the Chinese coast.
20 February 1945:
At 1030 YASHIRO departs Kure and later arrives at Moji. At 1600 YASHIRO departs Moji with kaibokan CD-84 escorting convoy MOYU-01 consisting of 2 unidentified merchant ships.
21 February 1945:
At 0700 arrives at Reisui. At 1200 departs with CD-36 as an additional escort.
25 February 1945:
At 0100 arrives at Pei Ta Liehtao and departs at 1500.
1 March 1945:
At 1441 arrives at Nauchow Tao (Nouzhou Dao), Liuchow Peninsula.
2 March 1945:
At 1330 departs Nauchow Tao.
3 March 1945:
At 1325 arrives at Yulin.
18 March 1945:
At 1000 arrives at Tinghai. At 2400 departs.
27 March 1945:
Departs Sasebo to patrol off Amami-Oshima.
29 March 1945:
At 0700 arrives back at Sasebo. Undergoes repairs.
7 April 1945:
YASHIRO is ordered to return to Sasebo. After 1203, she establishes radar contact with multiple surface ships W of Amami-Oshima, in all likelihood battleship YAMATO and her escorts, maneuvering under attack of planes from TF 58.
E 27 April 1945:
S of Japan. YASHIRO, SAKITO and CD-41 join convoy SHIMO-03 consisting of KASHIMA, BANSHU, ABUKUMAGAWA, SHINTON and TAIKYU MARUs and tanker NANRYU MARU No. 9 escorted by destroyer ASAGAO, patrol boat P-102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224), kaibokan UKU, CD-26, subchaser CH-20, and minesweeper W-29.
8 April 1945:
Returns to Sasebo.
28 April 1945:
At 1200, arrives at Moji.
9 June 1945:- Operation AS-3:
The vessels of No. 102 Escort Squadron conduct an anti-submarine sweep in the area NW of Kyushu and Tsushima Strait. YASHIRO and CD-41 are assigned to an area SE of Mokpo, Korea.
At 0455, LtCdr Warren C. Hull’s (USNA ’37) USS SEA OWL (SS-405) fires six torpedoes at CD-41. One torpedo hits her ammunition magazine. CD-41 explodes and disappears at 34-18N, 127-18E.
USN codebreakers intercept and decrypt a message from YASHIRO that reads: “CD-41 torpedoed by enemy submarine. Sunk in position 34-22N, 128-11E .”
24 June 1945:
At 1930, YASHIRO departs Gainichiwan (Yongil Bay), Chosen (Korea) with kaibokan CD-2 and CD-13 escorting convoy SEINAI-04 consisting of ENRYAKU, MATSUURA MARUs and tanker YAMANAMI MARU.
26 June 1945:
At 0758, arrives at Hagi.
27 June 1945:
At 1045, arrives Maizuru. The convoy is dissolved.
5 July 1945:
Reassigned to the Coast Defense Squadron.
YASHIRO conducts patrols in the North Korean Sea.
1 August 1945: - Supply operation "Nichi-GO":
A six-strong convoy of cargo ships departs Fushiki harbor for Rashin (Najin), Korea, escorted by CD-87 and CD-150. The convoy is tasked with ferrying supplies and war materials from Korea to home islands.
8 August 1945:
72 miles SE of Rashin. LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) David B. Bell's (USNA ’37) USS PARGO (SS-264) torpedoes and sinks the 5,462 ton RASHIN MARU at 41-15N, 131-19E. 35 crewmen, 51 gunners and about 1,100 troops, mostly from the 1st Rocket Regiment, and passengers are KIA.
That same day, YASHIRO debarks 400 cadets of the IJA flying school to Yuki (Unggi), Korea. She is ordered to depart immediately and join the convoy enroute to Rashin.
9 August 1945:
Off Rashin, YASHIRO rendezvouses with the convoy early in the morning. While several miles away from the harbor, the escorts witness the attack of Soviet Ilyushin Il-4 bombers, Il-2 "Sturmovik" ground attackers and Yakovlev YAK-9 fighter-bombers at that location. It is decided to proceed to Yuki.
Around 0920, the convoy arrives 3 miles off Yuki, when another Soviet air attack starts on that harbor. Some Il-4 bombers attack the convoy. YASHIRO and other escorts fire back with their AA guns. At 0950, YASHIRO reports to Tokyo about destroying no less than 11 Soviet bombers. Two of her sailors are KIA, 19 wounded. CD-87 receives a bomb hit to her bridge. RYUWA and MEIYU MARUs receive minor damage.
10 August 1945:
The convoy arrives at Genzan (Wonsan), Korea.
15 August 1945:
At sea returning to Japan from Korea, YASHIRO’s crew receives notice of the termination of the war.
30 November 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.
1 December 1945:
Assigned to Allied Occupation Forces as a minesweeper.
Operating off Kikai Jima with kaibokan KURAHASHI, CD-49, CD-48 and CD-77 together with US minesweepers USS SHOVELER (AM-382) and USS REDSTART (AM-378). When not minesweeping the ships were anchoring off Amami-Oshima.
29 August 1947:
Tsingtao. Ceded to the Chinese Nationalists as a war reparation. Renamed WEI TAI. Rearmed with two 12-cm, two 40-mm and eight 25-mm AA guns.
Transferred from Tsingtao to Saei, Taiwan.
Saei. WEI TAI undergoes major repairs. She is rearmed with two American 5-in guns, two 40-mm and eight 20-mm AA guns and renamed ZHENG AN (PF-76).
Stricken from the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy list and scrapped soon thereafter.
1: It is unclear when YASHIRO joins convoy TAMA-37. Most probably it was after the 16 January Hong Kong air attack. TAMA-37 also did not arrive at Moji-Mutsure until 23 January 1945.
Thanks go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro and Mr. Aki of Japan, Mr. M Willmann and Mr. Gilbert Casse of France. Thanks also go to Matthew Jones of Ohio for help in identifying kaibokan COs and to the late John Whitman for info on CNO
intercepts of Japanese messages. Thanks also go to Erich Muethlthaler of Germany.
-Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall