(YAMASHIRO on sea trials in December 1934 - colorized photo by Irootoko, Jr.)

Tabular Record of Movement

© 2000-2020 Bob Hackett and Sander Kingsepp
Revision 19

20 November 1913:
Yokosuka Navy Yard. Laid down as Battleship No. 4.

6 October 1914:

6 December 1914:
Provisionally attached to Yokosuka Naval District.

3 November 1915:
Launched. Rear Admiral, Prince (later Admiral) Fushimi Hiroyasu represents the Imperial family.

1 April 1916:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Shitsuda Teiichiro (15)(former CO of KURAMA) is appointed the Chief Equipping Officer (CEO).

1 December 1916:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Nakajima Suketomo (19)(former CO of HIZEN/ex-RETVIZAN) is apppointed the CEO of YAMASHIRO with additional duty as her CO.

19 December 1916:
During the sea trials off Tateyama Bay the 30,577-ton YAMASHIRO makes 23.307 kts on 47,712 shp.

31 March 1917:
Completed and attached to Yokosuka Naval District. Captain Nakajima Suketomo is the CO.

1 April 1917:
Assigned to BatDiv 1, First Fleet.

Mid-April 1917:
Fitting out is completed.

1 December 1917:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Kato Yujiro (19)(former CO of MIKASA) is appointed the CO.

27 February 1918:
Departs Mako (Makung), Pescadores, to patrol the coast of China in company of FUSO, KAWACHI and SETTSU.

3 March 1918:
Returns to Sasebo. During a refit four 8-cm/3-in 3rd Year Type AA guns are added to the existing four. The aft funnel searchlight platform is deleted and the total number of searchlights reduced to ten.

Probably at that time a 4.5-meter 5th Year Type coincidence rangefinder is installed for testing purposes.

3 November 1919:
Placed in 2nd reserve at Yokosuka.

20 November 1919:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Ouchida Morishige (21)(former CO of SATSUMA) is appointed the CO.

20 November 1920:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Masuda Koichi (23)(former CO of Yokosuka Sailor Corps) is appointed the CO.

21 December 1920-13 October 1921:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The compass bridge is fitted with a windscreen. A flying-off platform is fitted atop No. 2 (superfiring) main caliber turret. Range clocks are installed.

15 September 1921:
Placed in 1st reserve.

20 November 1921:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Koyama Takeshi (26)(former CO of KASHIMA) is appointed the CO.

1 December 1921:
Designated as training ship for naval gunnery, torpedo and engineering schools.

29 March 1922:
Sarushima Bight off Yokosuka. Three experimental launches of a Sparrowhawk III biplane fighter are conducted using the flying-off platform.

1 July 1922:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Takahashi Setsuo (26)(former CO of IKOMA) is appointed the CO.

3 November 1922:
E of Izu-Oshima Island. At 1840 during a gunnery exercise YAMASHIRO's secondary battery scores an accidental hit on the light cruiser KITAKAMI, towing her target. One sailor is killed, another injured.

10 November 1922:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Torisaki Yasuzo (27)(former CoS of Chinkai/Chinhae Guard District) is appointed the CO.

1 June 1923:
Finishes service as a training ship. Placed in 2nd reserve at Kure.

June-September 1923:
Refit at Kure Navy Yard. The elevation of the main guns is increased to 30 degrees. The thickness of the main gun turret roofs is increased to 6 inches. The Bausch & Lomb rangefinders in turrets Nos. 1 and 6 are landed. Turret No. 5 is fitted with an 8-meter Barr & Stroud duplex rangefinder and turrets Nos. 2 and 4 with 7th Year Type rangefinders of the same base length. [1]

1 September 1923:
Placed in 1st reserve at Kure. The Great Kanto Earthquake, one of the worst earthquakes in history, hits the Kanto plain, destroying Tokyo, Yokohama and their surroundings that day.

2 September 1923:
Departs Kure for Sasebo to embark provisions and medical supplies, then proceeds to Shinagawa Bay. Participates in rescue works until 30 September.

1 October 1923:
Placed in 2nd reserve.

1 December 1923:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Takahashi Ritsuto (28)(former CO of KITAKAMI) is appointed the CO.

1 February 1924:
Placed in 2nd reserve at Yokosuka.

7 May-5 June 1924:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The foremast is built up, adding the secondary battery, AA and torpedo firing command stations. A Type 12 sokutekiban target speed and course calculator is installed to the target-tracking station. The compass bridge overhead is closed. A Caquot type kite balloon is rigged to the fantail.

7 November-13 December 1924:
Follow-up refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The main gun command station structure is additionally reinforced.

1 December 1924:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Ominato Naotaro (29)(former ADC to the chief of the NGS) is appointed the CO.

30 March 1925:
Departs Sasebo for patrol in the Yellow Sea Chinwangtao (Qinhuangdao) area in company of FUSO, HYUGA and CruDiv 5. Rendezvouses with KIRISHIMA en route.

5 April 1925:
Arrives at Port Arthur, Manchuria.

1 December 1925:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Ijichi Kiyohiro (30)(former CO of SENDAI) is appointed the CO.

30 March 1926:
Departs Nakagusuku Bay, Okinawa to patrol off Amoy in company of FUSO.

5 April 1926:
Arrives at Mako.

20 April 1926:
Arrives at Keelung, Taiwan.

26 April 1926:
Arrives at Terashima Strait.

1 December 1926:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Mashiko Rokuya (30)(former CO of CHOGEI) is appointed the CO of YAMASHIRO and HARUNA as additional duty.

1 February-9 June 1927:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard combined with the conversion to an Imperial inspection vessel. The foremast is rebuilt and the mainmast lengthened. Four 8-cm/3-in 3rd Year Type AA guns are added. A curved smoke deflector is added to the forefunnel. A searchlight platform atop a lattice tower is added to the aft funnel. A canvas swimming pool is rigged to the port side alongside the main battery turrets Nos. 6 and 7.

8 February 1927:
The works are temporarily suspended to permit YAMASHIRO to participate in firing the funeral salute for the late Emperor Taisho in Shinagawa Bay together with KONGO and NAGATO.

1 March 1927:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Terajima Ken (31)(former ADC to the Navy Minister) is appointed the CO.

28 July 1927:
Embarks Emperor Hirohito (Showa) and his entourage to oversee the Special Great Maneuvers. Accompanied by FUSO, proceeds from Yokosuka to Saeki Bay, Amami-Oshima Island, Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands and finally to the vicinity of Bungo Channel to witness the aircraft launches from AKAGI and HOSHO and the night gunnery exercises conducted by NAGATO and MUTSU.

10 August 1927:
Returns to Yokosuka where the Emperor and his entourage leave the ship.

30 August-27 September 1927:
Yokosuka Navy Yard. The anti-torpedo nets are landed.

1 December 1927:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Torin Iwajiro (31)(former chief of the Education Bureau's 2nd section) is appointed the CO of YAMASHIRO and HARUNA (until 28 December) as additional duty.

2-25 February 1928:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The kite balloon and the associated equipment are landed. No. 6 searchlight platform is rebuilt.

30 May-29 October 1928:
Refitted at Yokosuka Navy Yard to act as the Imperial inspection vessel. The foremast compass bridge is resited and a second gunroom added.

10 December 1928:
Captain (later Admiral) Toyoda Teijiro (33)(former CO of ABUKUMA) is appointed the CO.

15 January-25 February 1929:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. An aircraft storage platform is fitted to No. 4 main caliber turret for a Yokosho E1Y2 Type 14 floatplane. The main battery turret No. 5 is fitted with an 8-meter 7th Year Type rangefinder. A 15-m Admiral's barge and torpedo recovery boats are embarked.

16-30 May 1929:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. All three 6.5-mm Schwarzlose machine guns are replaced with 7.7-mm Vickers machine guns.

5 October 1929:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Iwamura Kanekoto (31)(former CO of ISE) is appointed the CO.

30 November 1929:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Komaki Wasuke (33)(former ADC to the Navy Minister) is appointed the CO.

5 December 1929-29 January 1930:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The forebridge is extended and fitted with additional windscreens.

20 April-30 May 1930:
Dry-docked at Yokosuka Navy Yard. Two L-type hydrophones are installed and formation turning indicators fitted.

1 December 1930:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Teramoto Takeji (33)(former CO of JINGEI) is appointed the CO.

18 December 1930-3 February 1935:
Modernization at Yokosuka Navy Yard. YAMASHIRO's stern is lengthened aft by 25 feet and the sternwalk is deleted. Full-size anti-torpedo bulges are fitted, deleting the torpedo tubes. The forebridge is built up and a 8-meter Barr & Stroud rangefinder is installed to the foretop. An air defense station is added to the forebridge.

The elevation of the main guns is increased to 43 degrees and the elevation of the secondary battery to 30 degrees. The turret rangefinders are replaced. The shell and powder hoists are upgraded to handle Type 91 "diving" APC shells; the protection of the shell magazines is improved. The 8-cm AA guns are replaced by eight 12.7-cm Type 89 AA guns in four twin mountings. Four 40-mm Vickers AA guns in two twin mountings are likewise installed.

The machinery is completely replaced. The forefunnel is deleted; the aft funnel is fitted with a rain cover. The armor protection of machinery spaces and main gun barbettes is increased. A torpedo bulkhead is fitted.

A Kure Type No. 2 Model 3 Mk. 2 catapult is fitted to the starboard side of the fantail for three Nakajima E4N2 Type 90 No. 2 Model 2 floatplanes, later replaced by one Kawanishi E7K "Alf" and two Nakajima E4N2s.

1 December 1931:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Masaki Katsuji (34)(former CoS of Ominato Guard District) is appointed the CO.

16 February-20 June 1932:
Captain Masaki is appointed the CO of ISUZU as additional duty.

1 December 1932:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Kasuya Soichi (35)(former CO of ASAMA) is appointed the CO.

15 November 1933:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Kojima Kentaro (36)(former CO of ABUKUMA) is appointed the CO.

11 December 1933:
Temporarily assigned to Yokosuka Guard Unit.

15 October 1934:
Placed in 1st reserve at Yokosuka.

15 November 1934:
Reassigned to BatDiv 1, First Fleet. Captain (Admiral, posthumously) Nagumo Chuichi (36)(former CO of TAKAO) is appointed the CO. The flag of the CinC, Combined Fleet/First Fleet, Vice Admiral Takahashi Sankichi is transferred from KONGO to YAMASHIRO.

14 December 1934:
During the sea trials off Tateyama Bay the 39,172-ton YAMASHIRO makes 24.6 kts on 70,922 shp.

May 1935:
Off Tosa Bay, Shikoku. During the night exercises off the southern coast of Shikoku BatDiv 1 comes under a simulated torpedo attack of DesRon 2 destroyers. YAMASHIRO is nearly rammed by the light cruiser JINTSU. The collision is averted thanks to a timely emergency turn ordered by the skipper of the battleship.

5 June-20 July 1935:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. Some searchlights and the aircraft handling deck rails are replaced.

20 July-2 October 1935:
Participates in the Annual Grand Exercise as the flagship of the Blue Fleet.

15 November 1935:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Okuma Masakichi (37)(former instructor at Naval Torpedo School) is appointed the CO.

4 February 1936:
The flag of the CinC, Combined Fleet is transferred from YAMASHIRO to NAGATO.

19 February 1936:
Sukumo Bay. Lt(jg)(Cdr, posthumously) Morita Hiroshi's (59) E4N2 Type 90 floatplane embarked on YAMASHIRO is lost in a training accident as a result of in-flight fire. The observer suffers minor burns.

13 April 1936:
Departs Terashima Strait for a training cruise to Tsingtao in company of FUSO and HARUNA to join CruDiv 5 (flag MYOKO), CruDiv 8 (flag SENDAI), DesRons 1 and 2.

22 April 1936:
Returns to Terashima Strait.

1 June 1936:
Placed in 1st reserve at Yokosuka. Temporarily assigned to Yokosuka Guard Unit.

17 July-4 August 1936:
Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The ships's boats are replaced.

23 July 1936:
Yokosuka. For the duration of Special Great Maneuvers of that year, LtCdr (later Captain) Prince Takamatsu Nobuhito (the younger brother of Emperor Showa) is appointed the assistant gunnery officer of YAMASHIRO. Embarks YAMASHIRO (the flagship of the Red Fleet during the maneuvers) that day.

29 October 1936:
Participates in the 17th Fleet Review in Kobe Bight. LtCdr Takamatsu Nobuhito leaves the ship that day.

1 December 1936:
Placed in 1st reserve at Yokosuka. Captain (later Vice Admiral) Kobayashi Masami (38)(former chief of the NGS 3rd Bureau 5th Section) is appointed the CO.

27 June 1937-31 March 1938:
Undergoes additional modernization at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The 8-m main battery rangefinder is replaced by a domestic 10-m Type 94 duplex set. The foremost secondary battery guns (Nos. 1 and 2) are landed and their casemates plated over. The 40-mm Vickers AA guns are replaced by ten 25-mm Type 96 AA guns in five twin mounts.

The funnel searchlight platforms are rearranged and fitted with heat protection lagging to accommodate Type 95 HA directors. A new counterflooding system is installed. Two searchlights from the foremast middle level platform are landed. The engine room elevator is deleted.

Probably at that time three Nakajima E8N1 Type 95 floatplanes are embarked.

20 October 1937:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Abe Kasuke (39)(former chief of Navy Ministry's Special Section) is appointed the CO.

1 December 1937:
Placed in 1st reserve at Yokosuka.

1 July-20 August 1938:
Captain Abe is appointed the CO of armored cruiser YAKUMO as additional duty.

15 November 1938:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Kakuta Kakuji (39)(former Sailor Corps instructor) is appointed the CO of YAMASHIRO and NAGATO (until 15 December) as additional duty.

Refit at Yokosuka Navy Yard. The catapult is replaced by a Kure Type No. 2 Model 5. Type 98 delay coil is fitted for the main battery guns.

11 August 1939:
Departs Sumoto Bight (Awaji Island) for a training cruise to Mandate Islands area.

26 August 1939:
Returns to Kishiwada harbor near Osaka.

15 September 1939:
Captain (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Goto Aritomo (38)(current CO of MUTSU) is appointed the CO of YAMASHIRO as additional duty.

1 November 1939:
Captain Goto assumes full-time command of YAMASHIRO.

15 November 1939:
Captain (later Vice Admiral) Hara Teizo (41)(former CO of TONE/CHIKUMA) is appointed the CO.

26 March 1940:
Departs Ariake Bay to patrol the southern Chinese coast in company of the aircraft carrier AKAGI, battleships KONGO, ISE and NAGATO, CruDiv 6 (flag KAKO) and DesRon 1 (flag ABUKUMA). Rendezvouses with MUTSU and HARUNA from Sasebo later that day.

2 April 1940:
Arrives at Takao, Taiwan.

11 October 1940:
Participates in the 18th Naval Review in Yokohama Bight.

15 October 1940:
Captain (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Ogata Masaki (41)(former CO of HAGURO) is appointed the CO.

15 November 1940:
Reattached to Yokosuka Naval District as a training ship.

Spring 1941:
Off Tateyama Bay. LtCdr (later Cdr) Hori Tomoyoshi (58), a test pilot at the Yokosuka Arsenal, is in charge of experiments with radio-controlled aircraft. Tests are conducted using two converted Kawanishi E7K2 "Alf" floatplanes of the experimental section of the Yokosuka Naval Air Group that can be either piloted via radio controls or flown manually. In these experiments, the planes are catapulted from YAMASHIRO or take off from the water. One of the floatplanes is lost during a landing attempt in rough seas.

15 March 1941:
Reassigned to BatDiv 5, Second Fleet.

22 April 1941:
Reattached to Yokosuka Naval District as a training ship.

24 May 1941:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Obata Chozaemon (43)(former CO of KUMANO) is appointed the CO.

8 August-1 October 1941:
Captain Obata is appointed the CO of submarine tender TSURUGIZAKI (future light carrier SHOHO) as additional duty.

31 October 1941:
Reassigned to Vice Admiral Takasu Shiro's First Fleet in BatDiv 2 with ISE (F), HYUGA and FUSO.

1-3 November 1941:
Undergoes Expedition Preparations at Yokosuka Navy Yard. An external degaussing coil is installed. The anti-torpedo bulges are filled with crushing tubes. Two Nakajima E8N2 "Dave" floatplanes are embarked.

7 December 1941: Operation "Z" – The attack on Pearl Harbor:
BatDiv 2 sorties from the Combined Fleet's anchorage at Hashirajima in Hiroshima Bay to the Bonin Islands with the First Fleet's BatDiv 1's NAGATO and MUTSU and CarDiv 3's light carrier HOSHO, escorted by DesDiv 21's WAKABA, NENOHI, HATSUHARU and HATSUSHIMO and DesDiv 27's ARIAKE, YUGURE, SHIRATSUYU, SHIGURE, MIKAZUKI and YUKAZE.

13 December 1941:
BatDiv 2 returns to Hashirajima anchorage to maintain standby alert and conduct training in the Inland Sea.

7 February 1942:
Proceeding from American radio traffic analysis, the IJN Owada Communications Unit predicts an impending US carrier sortie from Pearl Harbor. Vice Admiral Takasu organizes a task force for an intercept in the Bonins area, including battleships ISE, HYUGA, FUSO and YAMASHIRO, light carriers HOSHO and ZUIHO, light cruisers OI and KITAKAMI and two destroyers. Additional support is to be provided by carrier ZUIKAKU and six destroyers.

10 February 1942:
The pending sortie of Takasu Force is cancelled.

26 February-3 March 1942:
Dry-docked at Kure Navy Yard for hull bottom cleaning.

5 March 1942:
A picket boat of the 26th Sentai, Fifth Fleet, reports sighting 13 planes heading for Tokyo. The Navy General Staff immediately puts BatDiv 2, involved in training in Inland Sea, on standby alert.

12 March 1942:
Following an erroneous decrypt of Allied radio traffic, BatDiv 2, escorted by DesDiv 27 and other DD units, departs Hashirajima in an attempt to intercept the US carriers in the area N of Wake.

15 March 1942:
After a fruitless search BatDiv 2 is recalled.

16 March 1942:
BatDiv 2 returns to Ise Bay.

20 March 1942:
BatDiv 2 departs Ise Bay for Hashirajima anchorage.

21 March 1942:
YAMASHIRO returns to Hashirajima anchorage to continue joint gunnery and navigating exercises with BatDiv 1.

18 April 1942: The First Bombing of Japan:
Halsey's Task Force 16.2's USS HORNET (CV-8), VINCENNES (CA-44), NASHVILLE (CL-43), oiler CIMARRON (AO-22) and destroyers GWIN (DD-433), MEREDITH (DD-434), GRAYSON (DD-435) and MONSSEN (DD-436) and TF 16.1's USS ENTERPRISE (CV-6), SALT LAKE CITY (CA-25), NORTHAMPTON (CA-26), oiler SABINE (AO-25) and destroyers BALCH (DD-363), BENHAM (DD-397), ELLET (DD-398) and FANNING (DD-385) approach to within 668 nautical miles of Japan.

Led by Lt Col (later General/Medal of Honor) James H. Doolittle, 16 Army North American B-25 "Mitchell" twin-engine bombers of the 17th Bomb Group takeoff from Captain (later Admiral) Marc A. Mitscher's carrier HORNET and strike targets in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya and Kobe.

Departs Hashirajima with Vice Admiral Takasu's BatDiv 2 and ten destroyers in pursuit of Halsey's ships.

19 April 1942:
At 30-00N, 135-20E, one of BatDiv 2's E8N2 "Dave" floatplanes sights a cargo ship and drops a message tube with an order to stop. About 1000, the BatDiv 2 group, heading NE, encounters the 4,761-ton Soviet cargo steamer ANGARSTROI (ex-GRANTLEY HALL). The patrol boat PB-31 (ex-KIKU), dispatched to search the Russian vessel, sends a boarding party to inspect ANGARSTROI, found to be carrying 7,555 tons of sugar from San Francisco to Vladivostok. The Japanese order the steamer to proceed to Kushimoto, Honshu, for a further search. The BatDiv 2 group turns SE and departs in a further unsuccessful pursuit of the Americans.

20 April 1942:
BatDiv 2 is recalled to Hashirajima.

22 April 1942:
BatDiv 2 returns to Hashirajima.

5 May 1942:
BatDiv 2 departs Hashirajima for gunnery practice in the Iyo Nada with BatDiv 1's MUTSU and NAGATO. HYUGA's No. 5 turret gun blows up and her aft magazines are flooded. FUSO escorts HYUGA to Kure. YAMASHIRO and ISE return to Hashirajima.

19 May 1942:
BatDiv 2 departs Hashirajima with the First and the Third Fleets for maneuvers at sea.

23 May 1942:
Returns to Hashirajima.

29 May 1942: Operation "MI" - The Battle of Midway:
At 0600 BatDiv 2 sorties with the Main Body together with the light carrier HOSHO, battleships YAMATO, NAGATO, MUTSU, ISE, HYUGA and the light cruiser SENDAI.

4 June 1942:
BatDiv 2, CruDiv 9, TOA and SAN CLEMENTE MARUs and their escorts are detached from the Main Body to support the Northern Force.

6 June 1942:
After Operation "MI" is cancelled, BatDiv 2 is diverted north to support operations in the Aleutians.

17 June 1942:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

22 June 1942:
Departs Yokosuka for Hashirajima.

24 June 1942:
Arrives at Hashirajima. Resumes standby alert.

14 July 1942:
Hashirajima. Vice Admiral Shimizu Mitsumi assumes command of the reorganized First Fleet.

August 1942:
To partially compensate for the loss of carrier strength at Midway, the Navy Aircraft Department begins plans to convert the FUSO-class battleships to hybrid battleship/carriers. Work is to begin in June 1943, but these plans are later cancelled.

29 August-4 September 1942:
Dry-docked at Kure Navy Yard for maintenance. Probably at that time two Mitsubishi F1M2 Type 0 "Pete" floatplanes are embarked and a single-circuit degaussing coil is fitted.

1 September 1942:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Owada Noboru (44)(former CO of KATORI) is appointed the CO.

28 October 1942:
Participates in gunnery trials in Suo Nada Sea with MUSASHI, NAGATO, ISE, HYUGA and FUSO.

December 1942:
YAMASHIRO conducts aircrew training exercises in the western Inland Sea with carrier ZUIKAKU and battleships MUSASHI, NAGATO and FUSO.

1 February 1943:
Departs Hashirajima for Yokosuka to serve as a target ship for the IJN land-based bomber units.

3 February 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

1 March 1943:
Captain (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Hayakawa Mikio (44)(former CO of CHOKAI) is appointed the CO.

8 April-19 May 1943:
Kisarazu Bight, Tokyo Bay. Acts as the target ship for the Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" bombers, then returns to Yokosuka.

11 June 1943:
Departs Yokosuka in company of HAGIKAZE to tow the aircraft carrier HIYO, torpedoed by USS TRIGGER (SS-237) off Miyake Jima on 10 June. Soon after the departure YAMASHIRO is recalled since the light cruiser ISUZU has already rendezvoused with the crippled carrier.

2 August 1943:
Captain (promoted Rear Admiral 1 November) Hisamune Yonejiro (41)(former CO of NAGATO) is appointed the CO.

26 August 1943:
Departs Yokosuka for Kure.

28 August 1943:
Arrives at Kure Navy Yard where a Type 21 air and surface search radar is installed, then returns to Hashirajima to serve as the Naval Gunnery School training vessel.

7 September 1943:
Departs Hashirajima for gunnery exercises with Naval Gunnery School cadets and senior instructors. Returns to the Muroto Bight the same night.

8 September 1943:
Departs Muroto to continue gunnery exercises; returns to Tokuyama Bay that night, probably to refuel.

9 September 1943:
Departs Tokuyama to participate in Type 21 radar set tests.

10 September 1943:
Returns to Hashirajima.

15 September 1943:
Proceeds to Etajima in company of ISE to embark the midshipmen of Etajima Naval Academy's 72nd Class. Makes several training cruises between Hashirajima and Yashima anchorages thereafter.

8-12 October 1943:
Dry-docked at Kure Navy Yard for maintenance.

13 October 1943:
Ujina (near Hiroshima). Embarks approximately 2,000 Imperial Army troops of the Second Transportation Unit consisting of the IJA 107th Infantry Regiment's 3rd Battalion with 7th and 8th Companies, a section of 2nd Machine Gun Company, remainder of 2nd Battalion, 7th and 9th Companies, 16th Mountain Artillery, company trains. etc.

15 October 1943:
YAMASHIRO and the newly converted battleship/carrier ISE depart Saeki for Truk on the "TEI" No. 3 troop transport mission with Rear Admiral Kimura Susumu's (flagship TATSUTA) task group including DesDiv 32's FUJINAMI, SUZUNAMI and HAYANAMI. YAMASHIRO carries 804 men and 1,270 cubic meters of material including 180 14-in Type 3 AA rounds. ISE carries 1,278 men and 1,510 cubic meters of material. TATSUTA carries 105 men and 118 cubic meters of material and DesDiv 32's destroyers carry 243 men and 100 cubic meters of material.

20 October 1943:
The task group arrives at Truk. The anchorage is largely empty, Admiral Koga having sortied with the fleet to Brown Atoll, Eniwetok three days earlier to intercept an enemy task force thought to be closing on Wake Island. YAMASHIRO, ISE and TATSUTA debark troops and remain at Truk as guardships during the fleet's absence.

26 October 1943:
The fleet returns to Truk.

31 October 1943:
At 0800, BatDiv 2's YAMASHIRO and ISE depart Truk with CarDiv 2's JUNYO, escort carrier UNYO, CruDiv 8's TONE, CruDiv 18's TATSUTA, DesDiv 7's AKEBONO, DesDiv 17's TANIKAZE and DesDiv 24's SUZUKAZE and UMIKAZE.

4 November 1943:
Escort carrier UNYO and DesDiv 7's AKEBONO are detached for Yokosuka.

5 November 1943:
Minelayers NUWAJIMA and YURIJIMA and auxiliary minesweepers TAMA, OI MARUs conduct an advance sweep of the Bungo Suido ahead of YAMASHIRO and ISE transiting the seaway heading north.

At 0505, near the Bungo Suido, LtCdr (later Admiral) Ignatius J. "Pete" Galantin's USS HALIBUT (SS-232), alerted by "Ultra", picks up the zigzagging Japanese group on radar at 14 miles, base course 300 degrees, speed 19 kts.

At 0539, Galantin fires six Mk.14 bow torpedoes at carrier JUNYO, range 1,200 yards, depth set at 10 ft. At 0540, a torpedo hits JUNYO in the stern, but the other five miss. HALIBUT circles hard to port.

At 0543, Galantin fires two stern torpedoes at the carrier. During the action, a dud torpedo hits YAMASHIRO, steaming abaft JUNYO. At 0558, Galantin tries to fire another torpedo at JUNYO but it malfunctions and "runs hot" in the tube. JUNYO, with her rudder disabled, is towed safely through the Bungo Suido by both battleships.

6 November 1943:
YAMASHIRO, ISE and CruDiv 18's TATSUTA arrive at Tokuyama Naval Fuel Depot to refuel.

7 November 1943:
Refuelling is completed. YAMASHIRO, ISE and TATSUTA depart Tokuyama and arrive at Hashirajima. Resumes second-line standby alert and training duties while based at Hashirajima.

9 November 1943:
Iyo Nada, Inland Sea. YAMASHIRO is grazed accidentally by submarine RO-113.

8-9 December 1943:
Departs for a training sortie in Inland Sea, then returns to Hashirajima.

25 December 1943:
Captain (promoted to Rear Admiral 1 May 1944) Tawara Yoshioki (43)(former CO of NOSHIRO) is appointed the CO.

29 December 1943:
Departs Hashirajima for Yokosuka.

31 December 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka to embark the graduates of the 3rd Student Reserve Course.

25 February 1944:
BatDiv 2 is disbanded. YAMASHIRO and FUSO are reassigned directly to Combined Fleet. By 1 March their floatplanes are landed. YAMASHIRO is reassigned as a training ship in the Yokosuka Naval District. Conducts battle exercises in Kisarazu Bight thereafter.

5 May 1944:
Rear Admiral Tawara dies of natural causes.

6 May 1944:
Captain (promoted Rear Admiral 15 October; Vice Admiral, posthumously) Shinoda Katsukiyo (44)(former CO of OYODO) is appointed the CO.

12-24 May 1944:
Dry-docked in drydock No. 5 at Yokosuka Navy Yard. Type 22 Mod. 4 surface search/fire control radars are fitted to the battle bridge wings. The air defense station is extended.

29 May 1944:
Departs Yokosuka to serve as radar target vessel in naval exercises. Returns to Yokosuka that day.

June 1944: Aftermath of the Battle of the Philippine Sea:
Tokyo: The headquarters staff of the Combined Fleet, appalled at the debacle of Operation "A-Go", submits a plan to the CinC, Admiral Toyoda Soemu (former CO of HYUGA). It calls for FUSO and YAMASHIRO to be fitted with additional AA guns and Daihatsu landing barges and used for a counterlanding on Saipan. Admiral Toyoda rejects the proposal as a suicide mission doomed to failure.

20 July-10 August 1944:
Dry-docked at Yokosuka Navy Yard. Two Type 13 air search radars are fitted and Type 0 hydrophones installed. A total of sixty-six 25-mm AA guns (8 triple, 9 twin, 24 single mounts) and ten 13.2 mm Type 93 machine guns (all singles) are also installed. The final AA suite is ninety-two 25-mm AA guns (8 triple, 17 twin, 34 single mounts) and sixteen 13.2-mm machine guns (3 twin, ten single portable mounts). The plan also calls for the replacement of five lifeboats with six Daihatsu landing craft, but it is unclear if this was carried out.

1 August 1944:
Temporarily reassigned to Vice Admiral Shima Kiyohide's Second Striking Unit with FUSO, ISE and HYUGA.

12 August 1944:
Departs Yokosuka for in company of DesDiv 21's WAKABA and HATSUHARU to escort the escort carrier UNYO to Hashirajima.

13 August 1944:
Arrives at Hashirajima. Participates in battle exercises thereafter.

10 September 1944:
Designated the flagship of the newly-activated BatDiv 2, Second Fleet under Vice Admiral Nishimura Shoji (39).

17 September 1944:
BatDiv 2's YAMASHIRO and FUSO depart Ujina, carrying 2,131 men of the IJA 25th Independent Mixed Regiment consisting of three infantry battalions, one regimental gun company, one anti-tank gun company and one engineer company. Arrives at Kure later that day to await the arrival of DesDiv 17 from Lingga.

20 September 1944:
At 1042 (JST), ComBatDiv 2 Vice Admiral Nishimura transmits BatDiv 2 Secret radio message No. 201700: "BatDiv 2 and DesDiv 17 joint action schedule: on 23 September departure from western Inland Sea, estimated arrival at Brunei 29 September, estimated arrival at Shonan (Singapore) 2 October, estimated arrival at Lingga 3 October." On that day, two Mitsubishi F1M2 floatplanes are assigned to YAMASHIRO.

23 September 1944:
BatDiv 2 departs Kure, rendezvouses with DesDiv 17 off Agenosho Bay, Yashiro Island, then departs for Lingga. Many of the troops are billeted on the battleships' decks.

24 September 1944:
Nansei Shoto (Ryukyu Islands). At 0716, LtCdr Clyde B. Stevens' USS PLAICE (SS-390) sights two FUSO-class battleships emerging from the mist at 29-30N, 129-15E. They are advancing in a column screened by four destroyers; one on each bow of the leader and one on each beam of the second battleship. The screens are stationed about 3,000 yds off the track. The targets are zigzagging, using straight legs. PLAICE also spots a Mitsubishi F1M2 floatplane providing close air screen. Stevens begins his approach.

At 0742, Stevens estimates the target's length as 600 ft and sets his torpedo spread with a 120 per cent coverage from aft forward. He has a 30-degree angle on the bow of a battleship. Stevens fires his six bow tubes at 29-27N, 129-46E. He then checks the positions of the destroyer screen, and swings his periscope back to the target. In low power, the battleship now fills three-fourths of his 'scope! Stevens takes PLAICE deep to avoid a collision. At 0745, PLAICE's crew hears five explosions, but in reality all torpedoes miss.

26 September 1944:
Luzon Strait, Philippines. Cdr Frank Acker's USS POMFRET (SS-391), whose torpedoes missed FUSO in July, is on his second war patrol. At 1240, while submerged, Acker spots BatDiv 2 at 20-44N, 118-13E, but is unable to attack due to the speed of the battleships. Not seeing any air cover, Acker surfaces and goes to flank speed to close the battleships. At 1434, POMFRET's lookouts spot BatDiv 2 at a range of about 20 miles. The battleships are making about 20 knots and zigzagging on a base course of 211 degrees. Acker continues tracking BatDiv 2, but at 1620 the OOD spots a periscope at 330 degrees relative at 500 yds. POMFRET crash-dives, breaking off the pursuit.

27 September 1944:
South China Sea, off Luzon, Philippines. At 0532, Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Reuben T. Whitaker's USS FLASHER (SS-249) spots BatDiv 2 at about 15-40N, 117-18E. Whitaker attempts an "end around" at flank speed, but the submarine is unable to close the range for an attack.

29 September 1944:
BatDiv 2 arrives at Labuan Island, Borneo, near Brunei, disembarks IJA troops and departs. That same day, arrives at Brunei Bay, Borneo. Remains overnight.

30 September 1944:
Departs Brunei for Singapore.

2 October 1944:
At 1400, arrives at Seletar Naval Base, Singapore.

4 October 1944:
BatDiv 2 and DesDiv 17 arrive at Lingga.

5 October 1944:
Vice Admiral Nishimura pays a visit to YAMATO.

18 October 1944:
Steams with the fleet from Lingga to Brunei Bay, Borneo.

18-20 October 1944:
Arrives at Brunei.

21 October 1944:
Brunei Bay. Refuels YAMAGUMO. At 2053 Vice Admiral Nishimura, participating in the staff conference aboard ATAGO, receives his operations orders. His Force "C" (Third Section) comprising BatDiv 2's YAMASHIRO (F), FUSO, CruDiv 7's MOGAMI, DesDiv 4's MICHISHIO, DesDiv 10's YAMAGUMO, ASAGUMO and DesDiv 27's SHIGURE will advance through Sulu Sea to arrive at the western entrance of the Mindanao Sea by sunset on October 24. Operating in support of Kurita's Main Force, Force "C" will pass through Surigao Strait and attacking Tacloban anchorage at 0430 on X-day (25 October), 1.5 hours before the arrival of Kurita's unit.

22 October 1944: Operation "SHO-1-GO" (Victory 1) - The Battle of Leyte Gulf:
In the morning, the skippers of the vessels of Force "C" are briefed aboard YAMASHIRO by BatDiv 2 staff officer Captain (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Ando Norihide (51). At 1530, YAMASHIRO sorties from Brunei as the flagship of Vice Admiral Nishimura's Force "C".

24 October 1944:
Sulu Sea. Around 0945, 28 aircraft from Task Group 38.4's USS ENTERPRISE (CV-6) and FRANKLIN (CV-13) attack Force "C". YAMASHIRO, leading the formation, is attacked by ENTERPRISE's SB2C-3 "Helldivers" belonging to the 1st division of VB-20, led by Cdr Robert E. Riera, and VF-20 F6F-3 "Hellcat" fighters. She receives a near miss off starboard quarter, rupturing the anti-torpedo bulge over a wide area and causing a temporary 5-degree list, soon corrected by counterflooding. One of the radars (probably Type 21) is disabled by strafing attacks. A total of 20 sailors are KIA.

Following the attack YAMASHIRO's F1M2 floatplanes are launched to land on Cebu Island and return after sundown to intercept the enemy torpedo boats. At 1105 Nishimura transmits a situation report to Kurita.

At 1235, Nishimura - now aware that Kurita will not make it to Leyte Gulf at the prescribed time - orders to reduce the speed of his force to 14 kts.

At 1830, in position 08-56N, 123-37E, Vice Admiral Nishimura detaches MOGAMI and the three destroyers to conduct an offensive sweep ahead. YAMASHIRO, FUSO and SHIGURE make a turn to NE and advance at 18 kts.

Surigao Strait. Captain Jesse G. Coward's picket DesRon 54 lays in wait to launch a "hammer and anvil" torpedo attack. DesRon 54's western section is Cdr Carter B. Jennings' USS McDERMUT (DD-677) and Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles K. Bergin's MONSSEN (DD-798). The eastern section is Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Barry K. Atkins' MELVIN (DD-680), Cdr Reid P. Fiala's REMEY (DD-688)(F) and Cdr (later Rear Admiral) William R. Cox's McGOWAN (DD-678). Cdr (later Captain) Selman S. Bowling's thirty-nine strong Attack Force is arrayed along Surigao Strait in sections of three boats each. At 2236, Section 1's Ensign Peter R. Gadd's PT-131, stationed S of Agio Point, Bohol Island, picks up two radar contacts to the NE. PT-130, PT-131 and PT-152 head toward the contacts at 24 kts.

At 2250, lookouts aboard LtCdr Nishino Shigeru's destroyer SHIGURE spot the oncoming PT-boats and the destroyer illuminates them with starshells, opening fire. By 2254, Captain Coward's DesRon 54's western section makes radar contact with Nishimura's Force.

At 2258, YAMASHIRO's 6-in secondary guns open fire on the attacking PT-boats, well-illuminated by SHIGURE. Lt Joseph A. Eddins' PT-152 is hit and set afire. A 6-in shell from YAMASHIRO damages Lt(jg) Ian D. Malcom's PT-130, but does not explode.

25 October 1944: The Battle of the Surigao Strait:
After 0100 MOGAMI and her escorts rejoin Nishimura's force off the southern tip of Limasawa Island. In a "friendly fire" incident FUSO targets MOGAMI with her secondary battery from a distance of 3,000 meters, killing three sailors. Force "C" assumes Night-search Disposition No. 2 with MICHISHIO and ASAGUMO deployed in the van, followed by YAMASHIRO 4,000 meters astern, FUSO 1,000 m astern of YAMASHIRO and MOGAMI 1,000 meters astern of FUSO. YAMAGUMO guards the right flank of the formation with SHIGURE proceeding on the opposite side. As a result of incessant attacks some DDs fail to take up their prescribed stations until 0200.

At 0133 YAMAGUMO sights Section 6's PT-132 and PT-137, raises the alarm and opens fire. SHIGURE also opens fire. Both PT-boats fire their torpedoes at YAMAGUMO, but fail to score any hits.

At 0200, just before entering the choke point between Panaon and Sumilon islands, Nishimura orders to steady on course 000, due north. The speed is increased to 20 kts.

At 0203 Lt Edmund F. Wakelin's PT-134 attempts to attack FUSO from the rear of the Japanese formation. At 0205, she is targeted by MOGAMI and FUSO. PT-134 fires three torpedoes at FUSO from 3,000 yds - too far - and they all miss astern.

At about the same time, Nishimura's Force is engaged from dead ahead by Lt John L. McElfresh's Section 9's PT-490, PT-491 and PT-493. McElfresh's PT-490 misses MICHISHIO with two torpedoes. At 0207, Vice Admiral Nishimura orders an emergency 45-degree turn to starboard and at 0208 orders a second emergency turn.

Japanese shells damage PT-490, illuminated by destroyer searchlights. Lt(jg) Richard W. Brown's PT-493 aborts its attack, then lays smoke to cover PT-490's retreat. The Japanese destroyers get the range and PT-493 is hit repeatedly. She makes her escape on a damaged engine, but sinks later.

At 0211 Nishimura orders his unit to assume Battle Disposition No. 2 (line ahead with MICHISHIO leading ASAGUMO, YAMAGUMO, SHIGURE, YAMASHIRO, FUSO and MOGAMI). One minute later Force "C" is attacked from the SE by LtCdr Francis D. Tappaan's Section 8's PT-523, PT-524 and PT-526, targeting MOGAMI or FUSO with six torpedoes. All miss.

At 0240, when proceeding 1.5 miles W of Kotkot Island and still reforming into news disposition, Force "C" is picked up on McGOWAN's radar at 18 miles. At about 0301, MELVIN, REMEY and McGOWAN launch 27 Mk.15 torpedoes, then retreat NE, taking fire from YAMASHIRO, FUSO and the destroyers.

At about 0309, two of MELVIN's torpedoes hit FUSO's starboard side. She immediately slows down and develops a list to starboard. As MOGAMI moves swiftly ahead to take up station behind YAMASHIRO, FUSO's damage is not observed from Nishimura's flagship.

From 0310-0311, McDERMUT and MONSSEN each launch their torpedoes. At 0320, on the American right flank, Captain (later Rear Admiral) Kenmore M. McManes' DesRon 24 launches 15 torpedoes. One of YAMASHIRO's F1M2 floatplanes, now cruising overhead, illuminates the attackers with parachute flares. YAMASHIRO switches on her searchlights and opens fire with the secondary guns.

At 0320, YAMAGUMO is hit portside, blows up and sinks. At 0322, another torpedo, probably launched MONSSEN, hits YAMASHIRO's port quarter and starts a minor fire on the quarterdeck. YAMASHIRO's skipper Rear Admiral Shinoda orders to flood the magazines of the turrets Nos. 5 and 6's, thereby disabling four of his 14-in main guns.

Another of McDERMUT's torpedoes hits and cripples destroyer MICHISHIO that later sinks. Still another of McDERMUT's torpedoes hits destroyer ASAGUMO. She sinks in the morning.

At 0330, Vice Admiral Nishimura transmits a situation report, according to which two of his DDs have been crippled by torpedoes and "YAMASHIRO has been hit by a torpedo, but her battle integrity is not impaired."

Around 0331, YAMASHIRO receives a torpedo hit to port side amidships from Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Howard G. Corey's USS KILLEN (DD-593), set at a depth of 22 ft to inflict maximum damage. As a result of flooding YAMASHIRO's speed falls off to a mere 5 kts and she develops a list. [3]

At 0337 YAMASHIRO, now making 18 kts, assumes course 340 (T). She is accompanied by MOGAMI and SHIGURE. After 0441 they are attacked by DesRon 24 Attack Group 1.2 destroyers BACHE (DD-470), HUTCHINS (DD-476) and DALY (DD-519). YAMASHIRO targets the attackers with her secondary guns; according to one survivor's account she receives some hits. Nishimura orders to reduce the speed to 12 kts.

At 0351, the American cruiser screen's USS PORTLAND (CA-33), MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36), COLUMBIA (CL-56), DENVER (CL-58), LOUISVILLE (CA-28)(FF), PHOENIX (CL-46)(F), BOISE (CL-47) and Australian SHROPSHIRE open fire. Between 0353-0359, arrayed behind the flanking cruisers, Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Jesse B. Oldendorf's Battle Line, old battleships USS WEST VIRGINIA (BB-48), CALIFORNIA (BB-33) and TENNESSEE (BB-43) also open fire. MARYLAND (BB-46), PENNSYLVANIA (BB-38) and MISSISSIPPI's (BB-41) are forced to withhold fire because their obsolete Mk.3 fire control radars cannot track the target. At 0356, Captain (later Rear Admiral) Herman J. Redfield Jr's USS MISSISSIPPI joins WEST VIRGINIA and CALIFORNIA and opens fire, probably targeting MOGAMI, not YAMASHIRO.

YAMASHIRO is hit near the forebridge by USS WEST VIRGINIA's opening salvo and her topside is hit repeatedly by 6- and 8-in cruiser shells. By 0356 she is observed to "burn brightly" around the forebridge, amidships and aft, but still manages to return fire from her fore turrets, maintaining the speed of 12 kts.

(One of the victors over YAMASHIRO - modernized USS WEST VIRGINA (BB-48) in 1944

At 0356, YAMASHIRO targets Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Russell S. Berkey's flagship USS PHOENIX, but her 14-in shells fall short of the target. At the same time, YAMASHIRO's secondary batteries open fire at the American destroyers engaging MOGAMI and destroyer ASAGUMO.

At 0401, YAMASHIRO's fore turrets target Royal Navy Captain Charles A. Nichols' HMAS STROPSHIRE. The first Japanese shells fall short, but soon begin to get the range on the Australian heavy cruiser. At 0402, STROPSHIRE commences rapid return fire.

After 0403, YAMASHIRO is again attacked by DesRon 24's destroyers HUTCHINS and DALY. She targets them with her secondary battery and the accurate fire forces the destroyers to withdraw. At 0404 a violent explosion is observed aboard YAMASHIRO (possibly the No. 3 turret blowing up).

Between 0403 and 0405, DesRon 56's USS NEWCOMB (DD-586), RICHARD P. LEARY (DD-664) and ALBERT W. GRANT (DD-649), on a parallel course to the right of the Japanese formation, launch thirteen Mk.15 torpedoes at a range of 6,300 yds.

Beginning at 0407, Cdr (later Captain) Terrel A. Nisewaner's GRANT takes seven hits from YAMASHIRO's starboard 6-in guns and eleven hits by American 6-in shells from Captain (later Rear Admiral) Thomas G. W. Settle's USS PORTLAND and Captain (later Rear Admiral) Albert M. Bledsoe's USS DENVER. At about the same time, YAMASHIRO is hit in her starboard engine room by a torpedo launched either by GRANT or DesRon 56's Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Joshua W. Cooper's USS BENNION (DD-662).

At 0409, Rear Admiral Oldendorf orders cease fire because American shells are hitting his own destroyers. YAMASHIRO takes advantage of the lull in fire, turns south and increases her speed to 14 knots. At 0411, two torpedoes launched by Cdr (later Captain) Lawrence B. Cook's NEWCOMB catch YAMASHIRO and explode on her starboard beam. The battleship goes dead in the water and develops a rapidly increasing list to port. Once the list reaches 45 degrees, Rear Admiral Shinoda orders to abandon ship.

Surigao Strait. At 0419, the blazing YAMASHIRO capsizes and sinks by the stern at 10-22N, 125-21E. About 1,636 officers and men are lost. Vice Admiral Nishimura and Rear Admiral Shinoda decide to go down with the ship.

Three survivors are picked up by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Miles H. Hubbard's destroyer USS CLAXTON (DD-571), but about 150 other sailors in the water refuse to be saved. One of the three survivors, an English-speaking warrant officer, confirms that YAMASHIRO has been sunk. Ultimately, only ten survivors - two officers and eight petty officers and men - live to return to Japan.

15 November 1944:
BatDiv 2, Combined Fleet, is deactivated.

31 August 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

April 2001:
The John Bennett Deep Ocean Research International Company locates a wreck identified as YAMASHIRO near her recorded sinking position in the Surigao Strait at a depth of about 600 ft. The wreck appears to be largely intact.

25 November 2017:
Microsoft co-founder Paul G. Allen and his team of researchers aboard R/V PETREL locate YAMASHIRO more than 650 ft (200 meters) below the surface of the Surigao Strait. She lies upside down, with the tip of the bow twisted back over the rest of the wreck. Allen and his team have found all five of the former IJN ships sunk in the Surigao Strait - battleships YAMASHIRO, FUSO and destroyers YAMAGUMO, MICHISHIO and ASAGUMO. The wrecks are in poor condition. They were damaged severely during the battle, the sinking and 73 years in relatively shallow water has contributed significantly to their degradation. The environment they rest in is consuming them and has provided a flourishing artificial reef abundant with marine life. Additional survey images, photos and videos of exploration and discovery work, according to Allen, are forthcoming.

(Sonar scan © Navigea Ltd./R/V Petrel).

Author's Notes:
[1] The exact base length of all above rangefinders was 25 ft or 7.6 m.

[2] See

[3] According to MOGAMI's Detailed Action Report, YAMASHIRO was hit to the bow at 0340. If that was correct, the torpedo in question was not fired by KILLEN, but some other destroyer.

Special thanks for assistance in researching Japanese-language sources used in constructing this TROM go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro of Japan. Thanks for assistance in researching the IJN officers mentioned in this TROM also go to Messrs. Iwasaki Yutaka of Japan and Jean-François Masson of Canada.

Thanks also go to Messrs. Andrew Obluski of Poland, Richard Wolff and the late John Whitman of the USA.

For further reading, see Anthony P. Tully's "Battle of Surigao Strait" published by Indiana University Press in 2009.

- Bob Hackett.

Back to Battleship Page