W-21 (W-19 class) scanned from Gakken, V. 45
IJN Minesweeper W-22:
Tabular Record of Movement
© 2005-2013 Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall
6 October 1941:
Tokyo. Laid down at Ishikawajima Shipbuilding.
28 April 1942:
Launched and numbered W-22.
31 July 1942:
Completed and commissioned in the IJN. Lt Fujimori Saburo is the Commanding Officer.
1 August 1942:
At 1345, departs Yokosuka.
4 August 1942:
At 0625, arrives at Maizuru.
7 August 1942: American Operation "Watchtower" - The Invasion of Guadalcanal, Solomons:
Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Richmond K. Turner's (USNA ’08) (former CO of USS ASTORIA, CA-34) Amphibious Task Force 62, covered by Vice Admiral (MOH '14/later Admiral) Frank J. Fletcher's (USNA ’06) (former CO of USS VERMONT, BB-20) Task Force 61 and Rear Admiral (Admiral posthumously) John S. McCain's (USNA ’06) (former CO of USS RANGER, CV-4) Task Force 63's land-based aircraft, lands Maj Gen (later General/MOH/Commandant) Alexander A. Vandegrift's 1st Marine Division on Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo and Guadalcanal opening the campaign to take the islands.
13 August 1942:
At 1000, departs Maizuru.
20 August 1942:
At 1100, arrives at Saipan.
22 August 1942:
At 0700, departs Saipan.
24 August 1942:
At 0900, arrives at Truk.
26 August 1942:
At 0400, departs Truk escorting the tanker SAN CLEMENTE MARU.
29 August 1942:
At 1215, arrives at Rabaul.
1 September 1942:
At 0550, departs Rabaul escorting MATSUE MARU.
3 September 1942:
At 1701, arrives at Basabua.
4 September 1942:
At 0233 departs Basabua escorting MATSUE MARU.
6 September 1942:
At 0135, arrives at Rabaul.
19 September 1942:
At 0355, departs Rabaul escorting KAZUURA MARU.
20 September 1942:
At 1740, arrives at Basabua.
21 September 1942:
At 0352 departs Basabua escorting KAZUURA MARU.
22 September 1942:
At 1230 arrives at Rabaul.
26 September 1942:
At 1605 departs Rabaul escorting SANYO MARU.
27 September 1942:
At 1701 arrives at Shortland.
1 October 1942:
At 1522, W-22 departs Shortland Islands, Bougainville for Rabaul escorting a convoy consisting of OSAKA, SENKAI, SHINYUBARI MARU and NISSHUN MARUs.
2 October 1942:
At 0750, an unidentified enemy submarine is detected. W-22 drops depth charges, but without effect.
3 October 1942:
At 0508, arrives at Rabaul.
6 October 1942:
At 0505, W-22 departs Rabaul for the Shortlands escorting a convoy consisting of BUSHO and TAIHEI MARUs.
7 October 1942:
Arrives at the Shortlands.
12 October 1942:
At 0307, departs Shortland escorting CHOKO MARU.
14 October 1942:
At 1515, arrives at Kavieng.
15 October 1942:
At 1721, departs Kavieng escorting HIDE MARU.
17 October 1942:
At 1005, arrives Rabaul.
20 October 1942:
At 1243, departs Rabaul escorting YAMAURA MARU.
21 October 1942:
At 1105, arrives at Shortland.
24 October 1942:
At 1355, W-22 departs Shortland for Rabaul escorting a convoy consisting of KISARAGI and CHIYO MARUs.
25 October 1942:
At 0500, CHIYO MARU is detached for Ponape. Later that day, the others arrive at Rabaul.
31 October 1942:
At 0327 departs Rabaul escorting BRISBANE MARU.
2 November 1942:
At 0950 arrives at Shortland.
7 November 1942:
At 2045 departs Shortland and patrol the northern approaches.
11 November 1942:
Arrives back at Shortland.
13 November 1942:
At 0525 departs for Munda.
14 November 1942:
At 1245 returns to Shortland.
15 November 1942:
Departs Shortland and patrols the western approaches.
18 November 1942:
Arrives back at Shortland.
19 November 1942:
At 1415 departs Shortland escorting a convoy.
20 November 1942:
At 0838 arrives at Rabaul.
25 November 1942:
At 1543 departs Rabaul escorting a convoy.
28 November 1942:
At 0740 arrives near Shortland and detaches from convoy and commences patrol of the western approaches.
4 December 1942:
At 1508 arrives at Shortland.
5 December 1942:
At 0717 departs Shortland and patrols the western approaches.
6 December 1942:
At 1610 arrives Shortland.
7 December 1942:
At 1045 departs Shortland escorting a supply convoy to Munda.
8 December 1942:
At 0825 arrives at Shortland.
9 December 1942:
At 1307 departs Shortland and patrols the northern approaches.
13 December 1942:
At 1700 arrives at Shortland.
15 December 1942:
At 0357 departs Shortland escorting and unidentified warship.
16 December 1942:
At 2248 arrives at Rabaul.
22 December 1942:
At 0622 departs Rabaul and returns to the Shortland area patrolling the southern approaches.
25 December 1942:
At 1345 arrives at Shortland.
26 December 1942:
At 0815 departs Shortland and patrols the northern approaches.
1 January 1943:
At 1800 departs Shortland escorting a convoy (possibly consisting of SAN FRANCISCO MARU only).
3 January 1943:
At 0920 arrives at Rabaul.
16 January 1943:
At 1450 departs Rabaul escorting a convoy.
18 January 1943:
At 0550 arrives at Buin. Later that day at 2210 departs and patrols the western approaches.
26 January 1943:
At 1010 joins up with convoy bound for Rabaul (possibly consisting of SEIA MARU only).
28 January 1943:
At 1100 arrives at Rabaul.
2 February 1943:
Departs Rabaul escorting Storeship NOJIMA.
3 February 1943:
Arrrives at Shortland.
4 February 1943:
At 0930 departs Shortland and patrols the southern approaches.
11 February 1943:
At 0800 switches to patrol the western approaches.
17 February 1943:
At 0815arrives at Shortland.
18 February 1943:
At 1100 departs Shortland escorting a convoy to Kolombangara.
19 February 1943:
At 1940 detaches from convoy and patrols the southern approaches.
22 February 1943:
Arrives at Shortland and at 1800 departs Shortland escorting a convoy.
23 February 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.
25 February 1943:
Departs Rabaul escorting a convoy consisting only of KIRIKAWA MARU.
27 February 1943:
NE of Vella Lavella, Solomons. USN SBD "Dauntless" dive-bombers and F4U "Corsair"fighter-bombers, escorted by USAAF P-38 "Lightning" and P-40 "Warhawk" fighters, attack the convoy and heavily damage transport KIRIKAWA MARU. Either W-22 or subchaser CH-26 scuttles the burning ship. Casualties are unknown. That same day, off Kolombangara, Solomons, LtCdr (later KIA) John R Craig’s USS GRAMPUS (SS-207) attacks and possibly damages W-22. 
28 February 1943:
Arrives at Shortland at at 1543 departs to patrol the southern approaches. Later escorts an unidentified warship.
2 March 1943:
At 0824 arrives at Shortland.
5 March 1943:
At 1300 escorts GOSHU MARU till 2130. Then sails from southern to northern waters off Shortland.
6 March 1943:
From 1400 undertakes patrols in the northern approaches.
13 March 1943:
At 1530 meets up with submarine chaser CH-28 and tanker KYORYOKU MARU.
14 March 1943:
At 0815 detaches and undertakes patrols in the southern approaches.
17 March 1943:
Transfers and begins patrolling the western approaches.
19 March 1943:
At 0525 arrives Shortland.
20 March 1943:
At 0500 departs escorting KOSOKU MARU No. 3 to Kieta, arriving there at 1045. At 1810 departs port.
21 March 1943:
At 1510 arrives at Rabaul. Undergoes repairs in Rabaul port.
1 April 1943:
At 1300 departs Rabaul escorting a convoy consisting of KIKUKAWA, ADEN, KYOSEI, HEIWA MARUs and KOSHU MARU No. 3 (sic).
3 April 1943:
At 0700 arrives at Shortland.
4 April 1943:
Departs Shortland and patrols the western approaches.
5 April 1943:
At 0700 part of Army landing trials exercise.
6 April 1943:
At 1200 arrives Shortland.
7 April 1943:
At 1030 resumes Army landing trials exercise until 1600 when arrives back at Shortland.
8 April 1943:
At 0830 departs Shortland to sea returning at 1315.
9 April 1943:
At 0700 departs Shortland to sea returning later that day. At 1600 departs Shortland escorting auxiliary seaplane tender KAMIKAWA MARU.
10 April 1943:
At 1105 arrives at Rabaul.
13 April 1943:
At 2030 departs Rabaul escorting transport TATSUNAN MARU.
15 April 1943:
At 1010 arrives at Shortland.
17 April 1943:
At 0800 departs Shortland to sea with W-15 returning at 1130.
21 April 1943:
At 0740 departs Shortland for sea with W-15 returning at 1145.
24 April 1943:
At 0615 departs Shortland for sea with W-15 returning at 0940.
26 April 1943:
At 1200 departs Shortland escorting YORIHIME MARU.
28 April 1943:
At 0300 arrives at Rabaul.
2 May 1943:
At 0500 departs Rabaul.
3 May 1943:
At 1100 arrives at Shortland.
4 May 1943:
At 0900 departs Shortland to sea with W-15 returning at 1100.
5 May 1943:
At 1300 departs Shortland escorting HINOKI MARU towards Kolambangara. W-22 detaches close to land and returns to Shortland.
6 May 1943:
At 0530 arrives Shortland. Later at 1230 departs Shortland to sea with W-15 returning at 1500.
7 May 1943:
At 0925 departs Shortland to sea with W-15 returning at 1106.
9 May 1943:
At 0930 departs Shortland escorting KISARAGI MARU towards Kolambangara. W-22 detaches close to land and returns to Shortland.
10 May 1943:
At 0500 arrives at Shortland. At 1500 departs with W-15 escorting a convoy consisting of
KASHI, SHINYU, SANWA MARUs, KOSHU MARU No. 2 and NISSEN MARU No. 5.
12 May 1943:
At 0800 arrives at Rabaul.
17 May 1942:
At 1500 departs Rabaul escorting SHINSEI MARU No. 18 to Buka.
19 May 1942:
At 0730 arrives at Shortland.
20 May 1943:
At 0630 W-15 and W-22 depart Shortland, returning at 1100.
22 May 1943:
At 0900 departs Shortland with W-15 escorting an unidentified warship. At 1100 arrives back at Shortland.
23 May 1943:
At 0810 W-15 and W-22 depart Shortland, returning at 1030.
27 May 1943:
At 0500 W-15 and W-22 depart to meet up with an unidentified warship. At 1230 both arrive back at Shortland.
28 May 1943:
At 0800 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1130.
29 May 1943:
At 1145 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1500.
30 May 1943:
At 1230 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1410.
31 May 1943:
At 0500 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1100.
1 June 1943:
At 1130 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1400.
2 June 1943:
At 0800 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1145.
4 June 1943:
At 0630 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 0730.
5 June 1943:
At 0700 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1015.
6 June 1943:
At 1020 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1415.
7 June 1943:
At 0840 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1115.
8 June 1943:
At 1130 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1400.
9 June 1943:
At 1530 departs Shortland and off Buka meets up and escorts SUMIYOSHI and KYOSEI MARUs with auxiliary submarine chaser NITTO MARU No. 19.
11 June 1943:
At 1130 arrives at Rabaul.
18 June 1943:
At 1600 departs Rabaul escorting KOSOKU MARU No. 3, YOSHINO MARU and MIKAGE MARU No.2 (NB latter two unconfirmed)
20 June 1943:
At 0630 arrives at Shortland.
25 June 1943:
At 0600 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 0715.
28 June 1943:
At 0630 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1030.
30 June 1943:
At 0630 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1130.
4 July 1943:
At 1240 departs Shortland escorting KYOSEI MARU.
5 July 1943:
At 0720 arrives back at Shortland.
6 July 1943:
At 0500 departs Shortland and joins with others in a military operation. At 1600 returns to port.
11 July 1943:
At 0730 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 0845.
12 July 1943:
At 0630 W-15 and W-22 put out to sea returning to Shortland at 1310.
18 July 1943:
Buin, Bougainville, Solomons. USN VB-11 and USMC VMSB-132 "Dauntless" SBD dive-bombers and USN VT-11 and VT-21 "Avenger" TBF torpedo-bombers escorted by USMC VMF 122, VMF 211 and VMF 221 F4U "Corsair" fighters and USAAF B-24 "Liberator" heavy bombers escorted by USAAF P-39 "Airacobra" and P-40 "Warhawk" fighters and RNZAF P-40s attack shipping in the Buin-Kahili area. They sink destroyer HATSUYUKI taking down 82 of her crew and 38 passengers, and damage destroyers HATSUKAZE and YUNAGI and W-15 in the attack. Later, W-22 tows W-15 to upper Rabaul.
20 July 1943:
At 0930 W-15 and W-22 arrive at Rabaul.
8 August 1943:
W-22 departs Wewak for Rabaul, escorting small freighter JUTOKU MARU.
11 August 1943:
NE of Lorengau, Manus Island. A lone USAAF B-24 attacks and bombs the convoy. JUTOKU MARU is hit and sunk at 01-11S, 148-08E, but W-22 is not damaged.
28 August 1943:
Rabaul. In the evening, W-22 and subchasers CH-38 and CH-39 depart escorting convoy O-605 consisting of ASAKAZE, YAMAGIRI, NICHIRYO, TAISHO and TACOMA MARUs. At 2255, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Bernard F. McMahon's (USNA ’31) USS DRUM (SS-228) torpedoes and badly damages YAMAGIRI MARU at 01-31S, 148-41E. YAMAGIRI MARU returns to Rabaul. The rest of the convoy proceeds towards Palau.
2 September 1943:
Arrives at Palau.
27 October 1943:
Conducts several training sorties in Sea of Japan while being based at Maizuru.
10 November 1943:
Reassigned to the Southeast Area Fleet.
15 November 1943:
Attached to the Eighth Base Force at Rabaul.
21 November 1943:
W-22, auxiliary minesweepers TAMA MARU No. 6 and TAISEI MARU, and torpedo boat SAGI depart Saeki for Palau escorting convoy No. O-107 consisting of MEXICO, TATSUGIKU, TATSUMATSU, KAITO, CEYLON, KAIHO and SHOUN MARUs. The minesweepers are detached at latitude 28N and W-22 at latitude 20N.
10 December 1943:
W-22, W-21 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-48 depart Truk for Rabaul escorting convoy No. 1103 consisting of NIKKO and KIMISHIMA MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No. 18. NIKKO MARU is towing a Type A midget submarine and KIMISHIMA MARU is towing a Type A submarine converted to an underwater cargo carrier.
15 December 1943:
At 0810, SHINSEI MARU No. 18, W-22 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-48 are detached and head for Kavieng, New Ireland. The remainder of the convoy arrives at Rabaul the next day.
16 December 1943:
Arrives at Truk.
17 December 1943:
The anchorage is attacked by three Consolidated bombers. W-22 fires at the aircraft from her AA guns. KIYOSUMI MARU receives heavy damage in the attack.
25 December 1943:
Kavieng, New Ireland. Carrier aircraft from Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Frederick C. Sherman’s (USNA ’10) (former CO of USS LEXINGTON, CV-2) TG 50.2's USS BUNKER HILL (CV-17) and USS MONTEREY (CVL-26) attack and sink transport TENRYU MARU (five crewmen KIA) and damage ex-AMC KIYOSUMI MARU and W-21. W-22 is damaged in a strafing attack and develops several leaks.
30 December 1943:
W-22 and destroyer YUKAZE depart Kavieng escorting KIYOSUMI MARU being towed by salvage tug NAGAURA. Auxiliary subchaser CHa-34 also provides close escort.
31 December 1943:
Truk. W-22 is posted to the guard list with destroyer TACHIKAZE, subchaser CH-28, SHONAN MARU No. 11 and GENYO MARU.
4 January 1944:
Truk. Repair ship AKASHI provides temporary repairs to W-22's damaged section.
W-22 departs Truk at an unknown date and arrives at Yokosuka. Her crew is given liberty and some enjoy sight-seeing in the Tokyo area.
17 January 1944:
W-22 departs Yokosuka escorting convoy No. 3017 consisting of HIRO and KUDAMATSU MARUs via Chichi-jima to Saipan.
W-22 is detached from convoy No. 3017 at an unknown time and place and heads for Maizuru.
27 January 1944:
Arrives at Maizuru. Enters dock and undergoes four months of major repairs and remodeling. Her mine sweeping equipment is removed and she is requipped for escort duty. A dual Type 96 25mm AA machine gun and racks are fitted for the 36 depth charges she will now carry. W-22's maximum speed is increased to 25 knots and her crew increased by 20 additional men.
Lt Yasuda Hiroshi is appointed the CO.
7 April 1944:
W-22 is assigned as an escort for the "Take No. 1" (Takeichi) convoy.
13 April 1944:
At 2355, W-22, kaibokan CD-20 and destroyer ASAKAZE depart Moji escorting convoy MOTA-17 consisting of MANSHU, KANAN, FUKUYO, TEIKAI (ex German FULDA) and TEIKA (ex French CAP VARELLA) MARUs.
14 April 1944:
At 1748, arrives at Chinkai, Chosen (Korea).
21 April 1944:
W-22, destroyers ASAKAZE, SHIRATSUYU and FUJINAMI, kaibokan KURAHASHI, CD-20, CD-22, minelayer SHIRATAKA, subchasers CH-37, CH-38, gunboats UJI, ATAKA and auxiliary minesweeper TAMA MARU No. 7 depart the Shanghai Sea area for New Guinea via Manila escorting the "Take" convoy consisting of KAZUURA, MITSUKI, BRAZIL, TENSHINZAN, TAJIMA, ADEN, YOZAN, MANSHU, FUKUYO, KANAN, TEIKAI and TEIKO MARUs, YOSHIDA MARU No. 1, UNKAI MARU No.12 and an unidentified ship. Four of the transports carry 12,874 men and their equipment of the IJA's 32nd Division. Another four of the transports carry 8,170 men and their equipment of the 35nd Division.
26 April 1944:
At about 0600, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Thomas M. Dykers' (USNA ’27) USS JACK (SS-259) makes a radar-assisted surface attack on the convoy. Dykers torpedoes and sinks 5,245-ton YOSHIDA MARU No. 1 at 18-06N, 119-40E. She takes down 2,586 troops of the IJA's 32nd Division, 213th Infantry Regiment of the 3800 men on board and 63 crewmen. W-22 counterattacks with depth charges.
27 April 1944:
Arrives at Manila. KANAN, FUKUYO, BRAZIL and MANSHU MARUs are detached and remain behind.
5 May 1944:
At 1425, departs Manila escorting IJA troop transport AOBASAN MARU.
7 May 1944:
Cdr Thomas W. Hogan's (USNA ’31) USS BONEFISH (SS-223) torpedoes and badly damages AOBASAN MARU at 07-07N, 121-50E. At 2245, AOBASAN MARU arrives at Lemitan, Basilan Island. Later, salvage vessels MIHO and MATSU MARUs and an auxiliary subchaser arrive. It and W-22 maintain a depth charge barrage that keeps USS BONEFISH submerged.
8 May 1944:
At 1043, arrives at Zamboanga.
15 May 1944:
Arrives at Davao.
23 May 1944:
Arrives at Palau.
27 May 1944:
Arrives at Yap.
1 June 1944:
2 June 1944:
Reassigned to Southwest Area Fleet.
4 June 1944:
At 0225, USN codebreakers intercept and decrypt a message from W-22 that reads: “At 0400 [CNO suggests 0040] on 4 June was bombed by one enemy plane in position 04-00N, 129-45E. Received no hits. While -- lost sight of Special Transport No. 128 because of a squall and although we searched the vicinity did not find her. We are now --.”
At 0745, codebreakers decrypt another message from W-22 that reads: “Tried to establish communication with Special Transport No. 128 but got no answer. Taking all circumstances into consideration believe she went ahead ----.” 
5 June 1944:
At 2200 arrives at Kau.
9 June 1944:
At 1830 departs Kau escorting a convoy consisting of KOSHU MARU No. 1 and Navy Landing Ships T-101 and T-102.
13 June 1944:
At 1500 arrives at Ambon.
14 June 1944:
At 0700 departs Ambon escorting one unidentified Navy merchant ship.
18 June 1944:
Arrives back at Ambon.
19 June 1944:
At 1100 departs Ambon escorting one unidentified Navy merchant ship.
23 June 1944:
At 1500 arrives at Galela.
24 June 1944:
At 0630 arrives at Tobelo and later departs and at 1100 arrives at Kau.
26 June 1944:
At 0430, W-22 and destroyer HOKAZE depart Kau, Halmahera escorting a convoy consisting of KURAMASAN (possibly IKOMASAN) MARU, JUZAN and SHOEI MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No. 17.
29 June 1944:
At 0805, auxiliary submarine chaser TAKUNAN MARU No. 5 joins the escort. The convoy then calls at Buli Bay, Gebe Island, Kofiao Island, Sawao and Boano Islands over the next 2 days.
1 July 1944:
At 1600 arrives at Ambon, Ceram, N.E.I.
2 July 1944:
At 1830 departs Ambon with destroyer HOKAZE and auxiliaries TONAN MARU and KAIO MARU No. 3 escorting two unidentified Navy merchant ships.
6 July 1944:
Departs Tahuna, Sangihe Islands, with HOKAZE having taken on 118 survivors of YAMAMIYA MARU sunk in a separate convoy. At 0910 in position 03-25N 125-30E 20 km S of Tahuma, HOKAZE is torpedoed and sunk by USS PADDLE. Only 49 of YAMAMIYA MARUs survivors and an unknown number of HOKAZE's crew are rescued by TONAN MARU and KAIO MARU No. 3.
7 July 1944:
Attached to the 30th Special Base Force.
8 July 1944:
At 1800 arrives at Kau.
14 July 1944:
Arrives at Cebu, Philippines.
16 July 1944:
Arrives at Davao enroute to Palau.
24 July 1944:
At 0820 W-22 and submarine chaser CH-60, minelayer WAKATAKA, and auxiliary minesweeper WA-3 depart Ambon escorting TOYO, TAIKAI and SHINSEI MARUs.
1 August 1944:
At 1800 arrives at Bitung.
2 August 1944:
At 1700 departs Bitung.
5 August 1944:
At 1030 arrives at Ambon.
Lt Yasuda Hiroshi assumes command.
11 November 1944:
Palau. W-22 hits a mine, probably dropped by aircraft, and sinks off Babelthuap, Peleliu. 
10 January 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.
 No confirmation of damage to W-22 is possible since USS GRAMPUS herself was lost on this patrol. On 5 March 1943 in Blackett Strait, Solomons, two IJN destroyers conducted an ASW attack. The following day, a heavy oil slick was sighted indicating that USS GRAMPUS may have been lost there.
 It is unclear if this ship is KOSHU MARU No. 2 or KOSOKU MARU No. 3 both of which were in the area.
 CNO analysts say Special Transport No.] 128 was sunk 4 Jun '44.
 Reports of W-22’s loss conflict. Some say she was sunk on this date by air attack off Palau; another report says she was sunk on 22 August 1944 off Palau by USS BATFISH (SS-310). USS BATFISH attacked a “Minekaze class DD“ on the 23rd, off Velasco Reef, Palau, (08-09N, 134-38E), claiming 3 hits. JANAC identified her as W-22.
Thanks go to Matthew Jones for information on COs and to John Whitman for info on CNO intercepts of Japanese messages and from Japanese websites and to Mr. Gilbert Casse of France for general asistance.
Thanks also go to Sander Kingsepp for translating Japanese source material for Rev 6.
Photo credit goes to Gakken via J. Ed Low.
-Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall.