(TOYOKAWA MARU, prewar)
IJA TOYOKAWA MARU:
Tabular Record of
© 2013-2016 Bob Hackett
Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, England. Laid down at Bill Quay by Wood,
Skinner & Co., Ltd. as Yard No. 173, a 5,123-ton passenger-cargo ship for
A/S Bangor (Pederson Olsen), Kristiania, Norway.
Launched and named BANGOR.
Taken over by Fred Olsen - Ganger Rolf A/S, Kristiania, Norway.
Sold to A/S Bangor, Oslo (old Kristiania), Norway.
14 March 1915:
Strait of Magellan off the Juan Fernandez Islands,
Chile. BANGOR is captured as a war prize by British light cruiser HMS BRISTOL
while carrying coal and provisions for German commerce raider cruiser SMS
DRESDEN. HMS BRISOL and light cruiser HMS KENT find and sink SMS DRESDEN at Mas
a Fuera, Chile.
Registered at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands as SEATTLE for the
Admiralty Coasting Trade Office (Everett & Newbigin Ltd.), Newcastle, United
Kingdom. Managed by The Shipping Controller (Hays & Sons), Belfast, UK.
Sold to the Government of the Union of South Africa (Department
of Harbors and Railways, Cape Town); registered at London, United Kingdom.
Sold to Matsowa Kisen, K. K, Fuchu (later Kyoto). Renamed
7 May 1934:
TOYOKAWA MARU is cleared to depart Singapore.
7 November 1941:
Requisitioned by the Imperial Army (IJA) and converted to a
troop transport. Allotted IJA No. 224.
17 February 1942:
TOYOKAWA MARU runs aground off Foochow and salage and repair tug KASASHIMA is sent to assist.
TOYOKAWA MARU is successfully refloated.
12 March 1943:
At 0600, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Balikpapan, Borneo in a
convoy also consisting of MADRAS and SAMARANG MARUs escorted by minesweeper
30 July 1943:
At 0900, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Saeki for Palau in
convoy No. O-003 also consisting of TAISHO and DELAGOA MARUs escorted by
minelayer YURISHIMA, patrol boat PB-31 and auxiliary minesweeper TAKUNAN MARU
No. 3. At latitude 29N, YURISHIMA and TAKUNAN MARU No. 3 are detached to return
8 August 1943:
Arrives at Palau.
18 August 1943:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Palau for Ujina in convoy
FU-806 also consisting of DAIFUKU (TAIFUKU), HOZUGAWA, KAYO, MEXICO and TOUN
MARUs escorted by minesweeper W-17.
[22 August 1943:
In the late afternoon, LtCdr (later Rear
Admiral-Ret) Louis D. McGregor's (USNA ’30) old USS PIKE (SS-173) torpedoes and
hits TOUN MARU with a dud Mark 14-3 torpedo at 21-50N, 137-52E.
23 August 1943:
At 1805, McGregor attacks TOUN MARU again, but she
avoids PIKE's torpedoes.
26 August 1943:
At 0530, LtCdr (later Cdr) Albert C. Burrows' (USNA
’28) USS WHALE (SS-239) attacks the convoy. Burrows torpedoes, but misses MEXICO
27 August 1943:
At 31-50N, 133-58E, minelayer YURIJIMA joins convoy
FU-806 then escorted by minesweeper W-17, auxiliary minesweepers TAMA MARU No. 7
and TAMA MARU No. 6 (the latter two from 30-30N, 134-05E).
At 0258, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Bafford E. Lewellen's (USNA ’31)
old USS POLLACK (SS-180) makes a visual surface attack on convoy FU-806.
Lewellen torpedoes DAIFUKU (TAIFUKU) MARU. W-17 opens fire on POLLACK, but
Lewellen evades and escapes. In the morning, DAIFUKU MARU sinks at 32-28N,
132-23E taking down 14 of 160 passengers, 14 crewmen and ashes of 137 dead.
At 0730, USN code breakers intercept and decrypt a message from W-17 that
reads: "Discovered surfaced enemy submarine, 1 kilometer from scene of the
sinking of TAIFUKU MARU fired on same (1 hit in vicinity of conning tower) depth
charged, etc. 192 men of the 205 on board the stricken ship were picked up by
28 August 1943:
At 0700, arrives at Ujina.
3 September 1943:
At 0630, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Saeki in convoy O-302 also consisting of CHINZEI MARU escorted by patrol boat PB-31, minesweeper W-33, and auxiliary minesweeper YACHIYO MARU.
13 September 1943:
Arrives at Palau.
5 October 1943:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Palau in convoy FU-506 also
consisting of MOJI, TENCHO, TOTAI, TOYU and YAGUMO MARUs escorted by kaibokan
E 14 October 1943:
At 23N, auxiliary minesweepers OI and YACHIYO
MARUs and TAMA MARU No. 7 join the convoy.
15 October 1943:
Arrives at Saeki.
13 November 1943:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Singaporei in convoy O-106
consisting of TEIYU (ex-Italian CARIGNANO), BRAZIL, FRANCE, KOYU, UCHIDE and
YAMAZURU MARUs and SHINTO MARU No. 1 escorted by an unknown escort.
26 November 1943:
Arrives at Palau, Carolines.
2 December 1943:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Palau in convoy So-105
consisting of BRAZIL, FRANCE, KOYU, TEIYU and UCHIDE MARUs and SHINTO MARU No. 1
escorted by an unknown warship
[E 9 December 1943:
FRANCE MARU is detached for Kavieng, New Ireland.
10 December 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.
9 January 1944:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Palau for Saeki, Japan
escorting convoy FU-905 consisting of HIDAKA, KURAMASAN, SHIRANESAN and SORACHI
MARUs escorted by torpedo boat SAGI and subchaser CH-26.
20 January 1944:
260 km SE of Cape Muroto. At 0103, LtCdr Wayne R. Merrill's USS BATFISH (SS-310) attacks the convoy on the surface. Merrill fires eight torpedoes and gets two hits in HIDAKA MARU’s No. 4 hold that cause
her to lose power, steering and communications. She drifts helplessly for many hours. At 1456, HIDAKA MARU sinks by the stern south of Shiono Misaki at 31-32N, 135-58E. 14 passengers and 2 crewmen are KIA.
28 January 1944:
TOYOKAWA MARU is released by the IJA to her owners, but that same day is requisitioned by the Imperial Navy (IJN) as an Ippan Choyosen (B-AK) and operated by the IJN with a civilian crew.
10 March 1944:
At 0528, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Saipan for Truk in convoy 3310 also consisting of SEITO MARUs escorted by subchasers CH-28, CH-31 and auxiliary minesweepers FUMI MARU No. 2 and SEKI MARU. After departure, the convoy's destination is changed to Palau.
15 March 1944:
Arrives at Palau.
20 March 1944: 23 March 1944:
At 0630, TOYOOKA MARU departs Manila for Kau, Halmaheras in convoy H-22 also consisting of ANSHU, ATLAS, BENGAL, KUNIKAWA, KURAMASAN, MITO and HINKYO MARUs escorted by torpedo boat HAYABUSA and minesweeper W-30.
Zamboanga Sea. At about 1530, auxiliary subchaser KYO MARU No. 12 joins the escort. W-30 is detached.
24 March 1944:
At 1430, KUNIKAWA MARU is detached for Balikpapan Bay, Borneo.
About 28 nms E of Cape Chinaka, SE Mindanao, Philippines. LtCdr (later Cdr) Walter T. Griffith’s (USNA '34) USS BOWFIN (SS-287) makes radar contact with the convoy. At 2348, Griffith’s first salvo scores two hits on BENGAL MARU and she sinks at 05-37N, 125-58E. 161 passengers, four gunners and 41 crewmen are KIA.
E 1 April 1944:
Arrives at Kau.
6 June 1944:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Yokosuka for Saipan in convoy No. 3606 also consisting of AWAJI, DAITEN, HAKUYO, KAIKO, KANSEISHI, MIHO, RYUKO, SHINROKU, SHOZUI, SUGIYAMA, TOKO and YAMATAMA,MARUs escorted by destroyer MATSUKAZE, kaibokan AMAKUSA, OKI and NOMI, torpedo boat CHIDORI (part way), subchasers CH-16, CH-18 and auxiliary minesweepers SHOWA MARU No. 7 and SHOWA MARU No. 8. Soon after leaving, SUGIYAMA MARU is attacked and damaged by LtCdr (later Captain) James B. Grady's (USNA ’33) USS WHALE (SS-239) at 31-06N, 142-24E, but the ship is taken in tow.
9 June 1944:
NE of Chichi-Jima. LtCdr Edmund K. Montross' (USNA ’35) USS SWORDFISH (SS-193) torpedoes and sinks MATSUKAZE (number of survivors unknown but CO, LtCdr Kadono Tetsuo  is KIA) at 26-59N, 143-13E. The convoy steams to Chichi-Jima arriving later that day. It is decided to unload the convoy and return to Yokosuka.
14 June 1944:
At 0100, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Chichi-Jima, Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands on 14 June en route
to Yokosuka in convoy No. 3606, also consisting of MIHO, KANSEISHI and AWAJI MARUs escorted by kaibokan AMAKUSA, NOMI,
OKI and auxiliary minesweepers SHOWA MARU Nos. 7 and No. 8.
15 June 1944:
About 150 km SE of Tori Shima. At 0103, LtCdr Montross' SWORDFISH torpedoes and sinks
KANSEISHI MARU at 29-30N, 141-14E. Two men are KIA. The convoy puts into Yaene Wan, Hachijo Jima for safety, departing
later that day at 1800.
16 June 1944:
NE of Hachijo-Shima. At 2233, TOYOKAWA MARU sights a submarine surfacing near the convoy.
A submarine alert is given. TOYOKAWA MARU makes a sharp turn and rams the submarine's starboard side slightly abaft the
conning tower. The submarine takes on a heavy list, turns turtle and sinks in a few minutes. TOYOKAWA MARU opens fire with
machine guns and drops some depth charges. There are no survivors of IJN submarine I-6's crew of 104.
17 June 1944:
At 1400, arrives Yokosuka.
12 July 1944:
At 1500, W-38 and W-39 depart Moji for Takao, Formosa with destroyer SHIOKAZE, kaibokan SHIMUSHU, subchaser CH-55, auxiliary gunboat HUASHAN (KAZAN) MARU escorting convoy MI-11 consisting of cargo/transports EIKYU, TOSHINO, MIHO, ENOSHIMA, MANKO, HACHIJIN, DAKAR, FUSO, TEIRITSU (ex-Vichy French LECONTE DE LISLE), BAIKAL, TOUN and FUKUJU MARUs, BANSHU MARU No. 16 and tankers KOEI, TAKETOYO, AYAYUKI, SHICHIYO, AYAGUMO and HARIMA MARUs and OGURA MARU No. 1.
20 Jul 1944:
BAIKAL MARU is detached from the convoy and arrives at Kirun.
21 July 1944:
At 1800, arrives at Takao. TOUN MARU is detached from the convoy.
29 July 1944:
At 0500, the convoy departs Takao for Miri, Borneo joined by tanker HARIMA MARU and minesweeper W-28. Destroyer SHIOKAZE is detached.
30 July 1944:
At 2200, BANSHU MARU No. 16 incurs rudder problems and collides with MANKO MARU, but both proceed.
31 July 1944:
Luzon Strait. A wolfpack patrols the Strait under Captain (later Rear Admiral) Lewis S. Parks consisting of LtCdr (later Vice Admiral/MOH/COMSUBLANT) Lawson P. Ramage's (USNA ’31) USS PARCHE (SS-384)(F), LtCdr (later Captain) David L. Whelchel's (USNA ’30) USS STEELHEAD (SS-280) and LtCdr John C. Martin's (USNA ’34) USS HAMMERHEAD (SS-364). 80 miles NNW of Cape Mayraira, Luzon. At 0332, LtCdr Ramage's PARCHE torpedoes and sinks KOEI MARU carrying 1,050 Army troops of whom 150 along with nine crewmen are KIA. About the same time, oiler OGURA MARU No. 1 is hit by a torpedo, but does not sink. Five crewmen are KIA. At 0340, Ramage torpedoes and sinks YOSHINO MARU carrying 5,012 soldiers of the Kwantung Army. 2,442 soldiers, 18 gunners and 35 sailors are KIA and 400 m3 of ammunition is lost.
At 0420, Whelchel's STEELHEAD torpedoes DAKAR MARU, but she does not sink. At 0455, Whelchel torpedoes and sinks FUSO MARU. 1,384 troops and crewmen are KIA and a cargo of 36 railway carriages and 1,120-tons of other military supplies are lost.
At 0514, Ramage's PARCHE torpedoes and sinks MANKO MARU. Several hundred naval personnel, 17 escort troops and 20 crewmen are KIA and a cargo of ammunition is lost.
3 August 1944:
At 1730, the remainder of MI-11 arrives at Manila where it is reorganized.
23 September 1944:
At 1600, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Moji in convoy MI-21 also consisting of CHOSAN, DAITO, EJIRI, FUSHIMI, KEISHIN, KEIZAN, KENEI, TATSUBATO, TEIKA (ex-Vichy French CAP VARELLA), TSUYAMA and YOSHU MARUs and tankers SAN LUIS, SHUNTEN and EIKYO MARUs escorted by patrol boat PB-104 (ex-Dutch Hr.Ms. VALK), subchaser CH-21, auxiliary gunboat KAZAN (HUSAHAN) MARU
and auxiliary subchasers CHa-87, CHa-92. Later that day, tanker RYUEI MARU and cargo ship EIKO MARU join the convoy from Sasebo.
28 September 1944:
TEIKA MARU is detached and arrives at Kirun.
29 September 1944:
At 1700, arrives at Takao and the convoy is dissolved.
1 October 1944:
At 1300, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Takao for Manila, Philippines in convoy TAMA-29 also consisting of EJIRI, EIKO, JOGU, KOSHO, TOKO, RYUEI, TEIFU (ex-Vichy French BOUGAINVILLE), URADO, NANKING and PEKING MARUs and two unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan CD-6, CD-16 and CD-20, torpedo boat HIYODORI, minesweepers W-38 and W-39, subchaser CH-61 and auxiliary subchasers CHa-95 and CHa-96.
3 October 1944:
At 1703, the convoy arrives at Camiguin Island. W-39 is detached.
6 October 1944:
At 1900, the convoy departs Camiguin Island.
8 October 1944:
At 0250, the convoy arrives at North San Fernando.
W-38 and NANKING and PEKING MARUs are detached.
10 October 1944:
The convoy departs North San Fernando. Later, near
the Cape Rena Sea. At 1335, LtCdr Donald G. Baer’s (USNA ’37) USS LAPON (SS-260)
torpedoes EJIRI MARU with 1589 troops and tanks of 2nd Division at 16-10N,
119-45E. Fires break out and become uncontrollable. Abandon Ship is ordered.
Unmanned, the ship drifts away. At 1700 it runs aground on a reef and a violent
explosion occurs. At 1800, EJIRI MARU sinks. 191 troops onboard and eight
crewmen are KIA. The escorts drop 28 depth-charges, but LAPON is not damaged.
12 October 1944:
At dawn, the convoy reaches the Manila Bay area, but
the convoy commander is reluctant to enter because of the danger of air attack,
so the convoy continues southward. N of Calavite Strait. At 1410, LtCdr Maurice
W. Shea’s (USNA ’37) USS RAY (SS-271) torpedoes and sinks TOKO MARU at 13-32N
128-2IE. The escorts drop 30 depth-charges, but USS RAY is not damaged. All 29
of the crew are KIA and it is not clear if any of the 120 passengers onboard
13 October 1944:
Arrives at Manila.
17 October 1944:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Manila in the Taihi (Refugee)
convoy also consisting of SHUNSHO MARU and four unidentified merchant ships
escorted by kaibokan CD-6 and CD-16 and minesweeper W-41.
21 October 1944:
Arrives at Yulin, Hainan Island.
24 October 1944:
TOYOKAWA MARU departs Samah, (Sana), Hainan Island
in convoy YUTA-13 also consisting of SHUNSHO MARU and four unidentified merchant
ships. escorted by kaibokan CD-6 and minesweeper W-41.
26 October 1944:
At 1625, an enemy submarine is sighted at 18-00N,
27 October 1944:
At 1346, an enemy submarine is sighted at 21-00N,
29 October 1944:
Arrives at Takao, Formosa.
6 November 1944:
Departs Kirun, Formosa (now Keelung, Taiwan) in
convoy TAMO-28 consisting of TAISHO, JUZAN, SHUNSHO, TOYOKAWA MARUs and four
unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan MIKURA and CD-6. At an unknown
point CD-6 is detached.
13 November 1944:
Arrives at Moji.
14 November 1944:
Luzon Strait. At 1222, LtCdr (later Admiral)
Ignatius (“Pete”) J. Galantin’s (USNA ‘33) USS HALIBUT (SS-232) sights the masts
of a northbound convoy (possibly MATA-32) and starts closing at high speed. At
1319, Galantin attacks a large freighter in 20-56N, 121-33E, launching four
torpedoes from 3,100 yds. Immediately thereafter the diving submarine is
detected by a Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" patrol bomber from the 901st NAG, which
drops three depth charges and guides one of the escorts (CD-6) to continue the
attack. USS HALIBUT is damaged by very close explosions and her conning tower is
abandoned. The follow-up attacks drive the submarine down to 420 ft, but she
manages to escape.
19 January 1945:
At 0600, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Takao for Moji in convoy
TAMO-38 also consisting of BINGO, DAINAN, RASHIN, SHINNO and TATSUWA MARUs and
NICHIYU No. 7 escorted by kaibokan IKUNA, CD-39 and CD-112. 
22 January 1945:
At 1600, convoy TAMO-38 arrives at Namkwan
(Namquan) Bay and merges with anchored convoy MOTA-32 consisting of DAIKYO,
TENSHO, SAMARANG AIZAN, SHUNSHO and DAISHUN MARUs, TAMON MARU No. 16 and five
unidentified merchants, possibly including TETSUYO and TATSUHARU MARUs, escorted
by destroyer SHIOKAZE, kaibokan MANJU, CD-31, CD-132 and CD-144 and subchasers
CH-19 and CH-57.
23 January 1945:
At 0402, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral/MOH) Eugene B.
Fluckey's (USNA '35) USS BARB (SS-220) discovers the anchored ships and
skillfully enters the bay. At 0402, Fluckey fires a full salvo of torpedoes.
DAIKYO MARU is hit and her cargo of munitions detonates in a massive explosion
killing 56 crewmen, 28 gunners and 360 of 558 troops; also lost are six Daihatsu
and two Shohatsu landing craft.
Minor damage, probably from falling debris, is also inflicted on AIZAN,
DAISHUN, SAMARANGand SHUNSHO MARUs and TAMON MARU No. 16. At 0600, the remainder
of the convoy departs the anchorage.
25 January 1945:
Arrives at Keelung.
28 January 1945:
Arrives at Moji.
1 March 1945:
At 0800, TOYOKAWA MARU departs Mutsure for Keelung in
convoy MOTA-40 also consisting of AIZAN, ANKO, DAIKI, DOSHI, IKOMASAN and
KITAKATA MARUs escorted by kaibokan IKUNA, CD-26 and CD-41, minesweepers W-15
and W-17 and subchaser CH-19.
5 March 1945:
Off Akuseki Jima, Ryukyu Islands. At 1042, LtCdr Walter
F. Schlech's USS TILEFISH (SS-307) torpedoes and damages W-15's stern at 29-36N,
129-45E. W-15 is beached on Suwasi Island and later abandoned, a constructive
9 March 1945:
At 2010, arrives at Keelung.
28 June 1945:
TOYOKAWA MARU is damaged by an unknown marine casualty southeast of Hikoshima.
5 July 1945:
Off Shimonoseki, near Mutsure Jima. TOYOKAWA MARU strikes an aerial mine dropped by Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" heavy bombers and sinks at 33-56N, 130-53E.
 For his actions in the Luzon Strait that night, LtCdr Ramage was awarded the Medal of Honor.
 Both PARCHE and STEELHEAD received 1/2 credit for sinking YOSHINO
 Fluckey claimed CD-26 was an escort, but Japanese sources list
Thanks go to Erich Muehlthaler of Germany.
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