ZATSUYOSEN!

(TOYO MARU No. 3 prewar)

IJN TOYO MARU No. 3 :
Tabular Record of Movement


© 2015-2016 Gilbert Casse and Peter Cundall

Revision 1


1 April 1925:
Kobe. Laid down by Harima Zosen K.K. shipyard for Sawayama Kisen K.K. as a 985-tons cargo ship.

3 September 1925:
Launched and named TOYO MARU No. 3.

3 October 1925:
Completed and registered at Nagasaki. Her Net Registered Tonnage (NRT) is 571-tons. [1]

1925:
Placed on the Busan (Fuzan), Chosen (now Pusan, South Korea) route. Transport vehicles between the Hanshin region (Osaka – Kobe area) and Chosen.

1934:
Her NRT is changed to 570-tons. [1]

11 December 1934:
Port of registry is changed to Kobe.

19 June ~ 3 November 1937:
Chartered to Nichiro Gyogyo K.K.

24 June ~ 4 July 1938:
Chartered again to Nichiro Gyogyo K.K.

12 November 1941:
Requisitioned by the IJN.

1 December 1941:
Registered in the IJN as an auxiliary netlayer attached to the Sasebo Naval District under instruction No. 1571.

10 December 1941:
Assigned to Vice Admiral Yamamoto Koki‘s (36) Mako Guard District, Base Force, Base Defence Unit under instruction No. 1632.

22 December 1941:
Conversion to military duty is completed.

December 1941:
Departs Mako, Pescadores.

31 December 1941:
Assigned to Mako Base Defence Unit.

3 January 1942:
Arrives at Mako.

15 January 1942:
Assigned to Mako Guard District, Base Force, Base Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 7.

E February ~ March 1942:
Undergoes overhaul at Mako Naval Yard.

10 April 1942:
Assigned to Mako Base Defence Unit under instruction No. 658.

16 April 1942:
Undergoes training exercises.

5 July 1942:
Undocked.

6 July 1942:
Departs Kirun, Formosa (now Keelung, Taiwan) and arrives at Mako later in the day.

July 1942:
Departs Mako.

25 July 1942:
Performs her third gunnery drill W of Mako.

31 August 1942:
Assigned to Takao Defense Unit under instruction No. 51.

2 September 1942:
Departs Mako and arrives at Takao (now Kaohsiung), Formosa later that same day.

10 ~ 12 September 1942:
On ASW sweeping duties off Takao.

October 1942:
Departs Takao.

25 October 1942:
Assigned to ASW sweeping duties under Mako Guard District instruction No. 77.

11 ~ 13 December 1942:
Performs her first fleet drill.

28 ~ 30 December 1942:
Performs her second fleet drill.

4 ~ 6 February 1943:
Performs her fifth fleet drill.

8 February 1943:
Assigned to ASW sweeping duties under Mako Guard District instruction No. 4.

12 February 1943:
Ordered to end ASW sweeping duties under Mako Guard District instruction No. 6.

24 ~ 26 February 1943:
Performs her sixth fleet drill.

10 March 1943:
Assigned to ASW sweeping duties under Mako Guard District instruction No. 14.

18 March 1943:
Ordered to end ASW sweeping duties under Mako Guard District instruction No. 21.

1 April 1943:
Assigned to Mako Guard District, Base Force under Mako Guard District instruction No. 588. Assigned to Mako Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 6.

20 ~ 22 May 1943:
Performs her 12th fleet drill.

1 June 1943:
Assigned from 8 Jun ’43 to Mako Guard District, Base Force, Base Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 15.

3 ~ 5 June 1943:
Performs her 13th fleet drill.

23 ~ 25 June 1943:
Performs her 14th fleet drill.

8 ~ 10 July 1943:
Performs her 15th fleet drill.

17 July 1943:
Assigned to Kirun Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 19. Assigned to patrol from 19 Jul ’43 between Mako and Takao under Mako Guard District instruction No. 172.

28 ~ 30 July 1943:
Performs her 16th fleet drill.

9 ~ 11 August 1943:
Performs her 17th fleet drill.

22 August 1943:
Ordered to escort convoy TA-107 under Mako Guard District instruction No. 230. Departs Takao escorting that convoy consisting of seven unidentified merchant ships also escorted by auxiliary minesweeper HIMESHIMA MARU and arrives at Mako later that same day. The convoy sails at 7.5 knots.

25 ~ 27 August 1943:
Performs her 18th fleet drill.

6 ~ 11 September 1943:
Performs her 19th fleet drill.

15 ~ 17 September 1943:
Engages in rescue mission.

18 September 1943:
Assigned to ASW sweep under Mako Guard District instruction No. 277.

19 September 1943:
At 0950, convoy No. 205 departs Mako, Pescadores, for Moji consisting of auxiliary oiler HOKUAN MARU, auxiliary transport NICHIEI MARU, IJA transports KYOKKO, SEIZAN, CHINA, TEIKA (ex-French CAP VARELLA), FUKUJU and DENMARK MARUs, escorted by patrol boat PB-2. TOYO MARU No. 3 still on ASW sweep, provides distant escort to that convoy. At 1840 SEIZAN MARU develops engine problems and drops out of the convoy.

20 September 1943:
At 1110 civilian ore carrier (C-AC) GINREI MARU, and IJA transports BIYO, KENZUI, TATSUHA, TOSEI and JINZAN MARUs join the convoy. At 1200, TOYO MARU No. 3 is ordered to end current ASW sweep under Mako Guard District instruction No. 280 and to escort IJA transport DENMARK MARU that sustained mechanical failure. Arrives at Kirun later in the day.

22 September 1943:
Assigned from 1 Oct ’43 to Mako Guard District, Base Force, Kirun Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 21.

23 September 1943:
Ordered to ASW sweep under Mako Guard District instruction No. 290.

25 September 1943:
Re-rated a transport.

27 September 1943:
Ordered to stop current ASW sweep and to return to base under Mako Guard District instruction No. 296.

27 ~ 29 September 1943:
Performs her 20th fleet drill.

1 October 1943:
Detached from Mako Naval District, Base Force under instruction No. 2039. Removed from the Navy’s list under instruction No. 2040. Registered that same day in the Navy’s list as an auxiliary transport (Otsu) category attached to the Sasebo Naval District with Sasebo as home port under instruction No. 2041. Captain Nishikinuki Yushi is appointed CO. [2]

6 October 1943:
Detached from Kirun Defence Unit under Mako Guard District instruction No. 23.

31 October 1943:
Assigned to Sea Defence Forces.

1 November 1943:
Starts conversion to actual military duty at Mako Naval Yard.

17 November 1943:
Enters drydock.

20 November 1943:
Undocked.

22 November 1943:
The conversion is completed.

23 November 1943:
Departs Mako and arrives at Takao later that day.

November 1943:
Loads butanol sugar.

29 November 1943:
Departs Takao in convoy No. 223 consisting of IJA transport YOSHU MARU and eight unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan ETOROFU and auxiliary gunboat PEKING MARU.

30 November 1943:
Auxiliary transport SHOKEI MARU joins the convoy.

6 December 1943:
Arrives at Sasebo. Removed from the General Requisitioned Ships list.

9 December 1943:
Lowers the War Ensign. Captain Nishikinuki is relieved by an unknown civilian Captain.

E 9 ~ 11 December 1943:
Loads 900-tons of sugar and 112-tons of goods.

11 December 1943:
Departs Sasebo.

13 December 1943:
Arrives at Osaka.

13 ~ 14 December 1943:
Unloads 900-tons of sugar and 112-tons of goods.

14 December 1943:
Departs Osaka.

15 December 1943:
Arrives at Moji.

17 December 1943:
Loads 1,000-tons of cement.

18 December 1943:
Departs Moji.

19 December 1943:
Arrives at Kobe. Departs there later that day.

21 December 1943:
Arrives at Tokyo. Tethers to Hinode pier.

22 ~ 23 December 1943:
Unloads 1,000-tons of cement.

24 December 1943:
Transfers to Ishikawajima Zosensho K.K. shipyard for a refit.

28 December 1943:
The refit is completed.

29 December 1943:
Departs Tokyo and arrives at Yokohama later in the day.

29 ~ 30 December 1943:
Loads steel pipe totaling 625-tons and sheet bar totaling 396-tons.

31 December 1943:
At 0600, departs Yokohama in convoy No. 7231 also consisting of IJN shared transport (B/C-AK) TETSUYO MARU. The convoy sails at 8 knots. Auxiliary minesweepers SENYU MARU No. 2 and SENYU MARU No. 3 provide escort part of the way. At 2400, TOYO MARU No. 3 is detached and sails independently.

2 January 1944:
Arrives at Osaka outer harbor.

3 January 1944:
Arrives in Osaka inner harbor and tethers to rolling anchor.

3 ~ 4 January 1944:
Unloads steel pipe totaling 625-tons and sheet bar totaling 396-tons.

5 January 1944:
Departs Osaka.

6 January 1944:
Arrives at Mutsure-Jima.

8 January 1944:
Departs Mutsure-Jima and arrives at Karatsu, Saga Prefecture, Kyushu later in the day. Replenishes 100-tons of coal.

9 January 1944:
Departs Karatsu.

11 January 1944:
Arrives at Motoyama, Aichi Prefecture. Tethers to North Port pier. Loads 900-tons of briquettes.

12 January 1944:
Departs Motoyama.

15 January 1944:
Collides with unidentified object and arrives later that day at Kobe outer harbor.

16 January 1944:
Departs Kobe in convoy No. 8116 also consisting of four unidentified merchant ships.

17 January 1944:
Arrives at Ago Wan (Bay), Shima, Mie Prefecture.

18 January 1944:
Departs Ago Wan.

19 January 1944:
Arrives at Yokosuka. Tethers to Buoy No. H13.

19 ~ 21 January 1944:
Unloads 900-tons of briquettes.

22 ~ 23 January 1944:
Loads 520-tons of ingots and 120-tons of lead bullion.

23 January 1944:
Departs Yokosuka in convoy No. 7123-B also consisting of unidentified merchant ships.

24 January 1944:
Arrives at Matoya Wan, Mie Prefecture.

25 January 1944:
Departs Matoya Wan and arrives that same day at Owase Wan, Mie Prefecture.

26 January 1944:
Departs Owase Wan.

27 January 1944:
Arrives at Osaka. Unloads 520-tons of ingots and 120-tons of lead bullion.

28 January 1944:
Transfers from rolling anchor to pier No. 4.

E 29 ~ 30 January 1944:
Loads wood and plywood totaling 720-tons.

30 January 1944:
Departs Osaka.

1 February 1944:
Arrives at Sasebo. Tethers to buoy No. A11.

2 ~ 4 February 1944:
Unloads wood and plywood totaling 720-tons.

4 ~ 7 February 1944:
Loads bombs, aviation equipment and other sundries totaling 586-tons.

6 February 1944:
Replenishes coal and boiler water.

7 February 1944:
At 1230, departs Sasebo in convoy MOTA-02 also consisting of IJA transports LIMA, RAKUYO, SHIRANESAN, OYO, NANREI, UCHIDE, DAIKEI, TOSHIN, FUYO, FUJIKAWA, CHINKAI and TESHIO MARUs and civilian tanker (C-AO) KYOEI MARU No. 5. Arrives at Aizaki-Seto later that day.

8 February 1944:
Departs Aizaki-Seto. At 0720 PB-38 departs Sasebo and meets up with the convoy. At about 1600, off the W coast of Kyushu, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles O. Triebel’s (USNA ’29) USS SNOOK (SS-279) torpedoes and damages IJA transport SHIRANESAN MARU. She is detached with torpedo boat SAGI and proceeds to Sasebo.

30 miles SE of the Goto Archipelago. At 2200, USS SNOOK again attacks the convoy, sinks IJA transport LIMA MARU at 31-05N, 127-37E with 2,765 troops lost as well as four conscripted workers, nine gunners and 56 crewmen. USS SNOOK survives depth-charging by one or more of the convoy's escorts. The convoy heads to Kagoshima, Kyushu.

9 February 1944:
USN codebreakers at Fleet Radio Unit, Melbourne, Australia (FRUMEL) intercept and decode a message sent at 0220 that reads "LIMA MARU exploded and sank after being hit twice at 2245 on 8th in 31-05N, 129---E. Patrol Boat 38 and No. 5 HYOEI (KYOEI) MARU are picking up survivors and keeping the submarine down. Remainder of convoy taking refuge at Kagoshima. ".

12 February 1944:
Departs Kagoshima.

17 February 1944:
Arrives at Takao. Tethers to pier No. 8.

18 February 1944:
Transfers to rolling anchor in the back harbor.

18 ~ 20 February 1944:
Unloads bombs, aviation equipment and other sundries totaling 586-tons.

20 ~ 23 February 1944:
Loads wood for aircraft equipment, aluminum, tin and waterfowl feathers.

28 February 1944:
Transfers to inner harbor.

29 February 1944:
Departs Takao in convoy TAMO-07 also consisting of auxiliary tankers MATSUMOTO and ASANAGI MARUs, IJN requisitioned (B-AK) BIZEN and SHOZUI MARUs, IJA transports HAVRE (5,652 GRT) and BATAVIA MARUs, auxiliary transport SHOUN MARU and fifteen unidentified merchant ships escorted by destroyers ASAGAO, HARUKAZE and NAMIKAZE, minesweeper W-18 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-74.

E 3 March 1944:
ASAGAO is detached.

8 March 1944:
Arrives at Osaka.

9 March 1944:
Transfers from rolling anchor to pier No. 4.

9 ~ 10 March 1944:
Unloads wood for aircraft equipment, aluminum, tin and waterfowl feathers.

10 March 1944:
Departs Osaka.

12 March 1944:
Arrives at Yawata, Fukuoka Prefecture. Tethers to buoy No. 12.

12 ~ 14 March 1944:
Loads special steel and steel totaling 948-tons.

14 March 1944:
Departs Yawata.

15 March 1944:
Arrives at Kobe. Tethers to buoy No. 9.

15 ~ 16 March 1944:
Unloads special steel and steel totaling 948-tons.

16 March 1944:
Departs Kobe.

18 March 1944:
Arrives at Sasebo. Tethers to buoy No. D9.

18 ~ 22 March 1944:
Loads aviation gasoline, mineral oil and other sundries totaling 725-tons.

19 March 1944:
Fitted with one Type 93 13mm MG.

21 March 1944:
Loads Type 93 13mm MG bullets.

23 March 1944:
Departs Sasebo.

24 March 1944:
Joins convoy MOTA-13 that departed Moji the previous day also consisting of IJA shared transport (A/C-AK) HIGANE MARU, government owned ships (C-AK) YULIN (ex-Norwegian HERLEIK) and KOZAN (ex-HENG SHAN) MARUs, IJN requisitioned cargo ships (B-AK) BIZEN, SHOKA MARUs and TOYO MARU No. 1, IJA transport PACIFIC MARU, IJN auxiliary emergency tanker MATSUMOTO MARU, IJA shared tankers (A/C-AO) SHINEI, CHIHAYA and YAMAMIZU MARU No. 2 and IJN shared tanker (B/C-AO) YOKO MARU. (YOKO MARU joins the convoy from off Nagasaki) The convoy is escorted by kaibokan KURAHASHI and subchaser CH-26.

30 March 1944:
At 0800, arrives at Takao and tethers to Pier No. 13. Unloads aviation gasoline, mineral oil and other sundries totaling 725-tons.

E 1 ~ 6 April 1944:
Loads 1,223 drums of latex and 102 aviation weapons parts.

7 April 1944:
Departs Takao.

8 April 1944:
Arrives at Kirun. Tethers to buoy No. 1. Unloads 102 aviation weapons parts.

9 April 1944:
Loads 700 palm oil drums, 2,297-tons of raw rubber, 952 postal bags, 37 funerary urns and other sundries.

14 April 1944:
Departs Kirun and joins convoy TAMO-13 (combined with TAMO-16) also consisting of auxiliary transport KOTO MARU No.2 GO, IJN shared ore carriers (B/C-AC) HIOKI and YASUKUNI MARUs, IJA shared transports (A/C-AK) HAKUSHIKA, NORFOLK and HAWAII MARUs, IJA transports OYO and KONSAN MARUs and six unidentified merchant ships escorted by destroyer KARUKAYA and auxiliary gunboat PEKING MARU. Soon afterwards, straggles, unable to maintain the convoy’s speed.

16 April 1944:
Rejoins the convoy.

19 April 1944:
Rejoins again the convoy. Arrives later that day at Azuchi Oshima, Nagasaki Prefecture.

20 April 1944:
Departs Azuchi Oshima and arrives at Sasebo later that day. Tethers to buoy No. D3. Unloads 952 postal bags and 16 funerary urns.

21 April 1944:
Starts fitting of a Type 3 hydrophone.

23 April 1944:
Departs Sasebo. Performs gunnery drill with Type 93 13mm MG and arrives at Kakarashima, Karatsu, Saga Prefecture later in the day.

24 April 1944:
Departs Kakarashima.

25 April 1944:
Arrives at Osaka. Tethers to buoy No. 8.

25 ~ 27 April 1944:
Unloads raw rubber and latex cargo.

27 April 1944:
Departs Osaka.

28 April 1944:
Arrives at Kasado, Yamaguchi Prefecture.

30 April 1944:
Enters Kasado shipyard drydock for maintenance and repairs.

6 May 1944:
Undocked.

16 May 1944:
Type 3 hydrophone fitting is completed.

18 May 1944:
Departs Kasado and arrives at Tokuyama, Yamaguchi later that day. Replenishes coal.

19 May 1944:
Departs Tokuyama and arrives at Yawata later that same day.

20 May 1944:
Replenishes coal.

20 ~ 21 May 1944:
Undergoes cargo handling. Replenishes coal.

21 May 1944:
Departs Yawata.

22 May 1944:
Arrives at Sasebo.

24 May 1944:
Fitted with 6 depth-charges (DCs).

25 May 1944:
Cargo handling is completed.

2 June 1944:
Departs Sasebo and arrives at Karatsu, Saga Prefecture later in the day.

3 June 1944:
Departs Karatsu and joins convoy MOTA-21 (part 1) that departed Moji the previous day, also consisting of auxiliary transport KOTO MARU No. 2 GO, IJN requisitioned cargo ships (B-AK) TAMA and AZUCHISAN MARUs, IJA transports HAVRE (5467 GRT), NARUO (ex Panamanian ESTERO), CLYDE, HAMBURG, SEKIHO, TATSUAKI, SHINSHO, KINE, YAGI, IKOMASAN, TAIAN, TSUYAMA MARUs, SHINSEI MARU No. 5, and six unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan CD-14, subchasers CH-23 and CH-56 and auxiliary subchasers CHa-90 and CHa-95.

Later that day, TOYO MARU No. 3 drops one DC against an enemy submarine.

7 June 1944:
At 0900, an enemy submarine is sighted at 28-18N, 123-03E. TOYO MARU No. 3 drops two DCs.

8 June 1944:
Detached at some point from the convoy with TAMA MARU. At 1623, arrives at Kirun.

9 ~ 14 June 1944:
Under repairs at Kirun shipyard dock.

15 June 1944:
Departs Kirun.

16 June 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

3 July 1944:
Departs Takao an joins convoy No. 3311 that departed Saei that same day also consisting of auxiliary gunboat CHOHAKUSAN MARU, IJN requisitioned cargo ship (B-AK) NICHIZUI MARU, IJA transports KORYU, SHOZAN, FUKUEI, KAIKO, PEKING, YOKO, DAIKYU and SHOHO MARUs, Government owned (C-AK) SETSUZAN (ex-Norwegian HELIOS) MARU, civilian cargo ship (C-AK) DAICHI MARU escorted by destroyer HASU and gunboat OKITSU.

4 July 1944:
At 0700, YOKO MARU is detached for Kirun. Later that day, SHOHO MARU develops engine trouble and falls behind.

6 July 1944:
At 0545, LtCdr (later Vice Admiral) Eli T. Reich's (USNA ’35) USS SEALION (SS-315) torpedoes and sinks SETSUZAN (ex-Norwegian HELIOS) MARU at 29-57N, 122-51E. One crewman is KIA. HASU and OKITSU both undertake a hunt for the submarine. Later that day, TOYO MARU No. 3 fires 60 13mm MG rounds against enemy aircraft. Arrives at the mouth of Yangtze River.

9 July 1944:
Departs the mouth of Yangtze River.

10 July 1944:
At 0130, Convoy No. 3311 anchors at Ssu Chiao Shan, Shengsi Archipelago (now Sijiao Island, China) near Shanghai.

11 July 1944:
At 0600, Convoy No. 3311 departs the anchorage and arrives at Shanghai.

14 July 1944:
Replenishes 110-tons of boiler water.

16 July 1944:
Replenishes 20-tons of coal.

17 July 1944:
Departs Shanghai.

19 July 1944:
Arrives at Seito (Tsingtao). Replenishes 80-tons of coal.

20 July 1944:
Departs Seito.

21 July 1944:
Arrives off Haizhou District.

22 July 1944:
Departs Haizhou District waters and arrives at Wei Dao (Wi Do) later that day.

23 July 1944:
Departs Wei Dao and arrives at Xiao Yandao later that same day.

24 July 1944:
Departs Xiao Yandao and arrives at Gonoura, Iki Island.

25 July 1944:
Departs Gonoura and arrives at Moji later in the day.

26 July 1944:
Replenishes 73-tons of coal. Departs Moji later that day still in convoy.

27 July 1944:
Arrives at Kobe.

28 July 1944:
Departs Kobe in convoy No. 8728 also consisting of three unidentified merchant ships and arrives off Gobo, Wakayama Prefecture later that same day. The convoy sails at 8.5 knots and is escorted by auxiliary patrol boats CHIKUZEN MARU and KOGYO MARU Mo. 12 part way.

29 July 1944:
Departs Gobo waters and arrives at Gokkasho New Port, Shiga Prefecture later that day.

30 July 1944:
Departs Gokkasho New Port and arrives at Nagoya later in the day.

2 August 1944:
Departs Nagoya alone and arrives at Owase Wan (Bay), Mie Prefecture later that day. Sails at 9 knots.

3 August 1944:
Departs Owase Wan and arrives at Kobe later that same day.

4 August 1944:
Departs Kobe.

5 August 1944:
Arrives at Onomichi, Hiroshima Prefecture. Loads lifeboats. Departs there and arrives at Kure later that day.

6 August 1944:
Replenishes 120-tons of coal.

7 August 1944:
Undergoes cargo handling.

10 ~ 11 August 1944:
Fitted with two Type 93 twin 13mm MGs.

August 1944:
Tests her new MGs.

13 August 1944:
Fitted with Type 3 3” hydrophones. Departs Kure.

14 August 1944:
Arrives at Moji. Replenishes coal.

15 August 1944:
At 0600, departs Moji in convoy MOTA-23 also consisting of auxiliary transport (ex-ammunition ship) KOGYO MARU, IJA shared collier (A/C-AC) FUKUREI MARU, IJA shared transports (A/C-AK) EDOGAWA, DAIJO, EIJI, MANSHU and EIMAN MARUs, IJA transports ATSUTA, CHINA, TOYOOKA, AWAJI MARUs and YOSHIDA MARU No. 3, Government owned (C-AK) ROZAN (ex-British ANALOCK) MARU and an unidentified ship, escorted by destroyer HAYSUSHIMO, torpedo boat HIYODORI, kaibokan CD-10 and CD-20, subchaser CH-63 and minesweeper W-20.

16 August 1944:
At 1230 an enemy submarine is detected. CD-10 drops depth charges. At 1237 CH-63, W-20 and CD-10 execute an anti submarine sweep.

17 August 1944:
Ch-63, CD-10 and W-20 follow the convoy meanwhile continuing anti submarine sweeping. At 2000 they catch up with the convoy and end anti submarine sweeping.

18 August 1944:
The convoy arrives at Kagoshima, Kyushu.

19 August 1944:
Replenishes 120-tons of coal.

20 August 1944:
Departs Kagoshima, still with convoy MOTA-23.

24 August 1944:
At about 0700, off the coast of Sancho Point, Formosa (now cape Sandiajiao, Taiwan), LtCdr Henry S. Monroe's (USNA ’33) USS RONQUIL (SS-396) torpedoes and sinks YOSHIDA MARU No. 3 with 96 out of 99 troops, 10 gunners and all 70 of the crew being KIA. At about the same time, Monroe torpedoes and damages FUKUREI MARU with troops, coal and war supplies aboard. She floods and drifts ashore where she is abandoned about three months later. 210 of the 1445 troops on board and four of the crew are killed.

25 August 1944:
At 1400, the convoy arrives at Kirun.

26 August 1944:
Tethers to rolling anchor.

27 August 1944:
Departs Kirun and arrives in Takao waters later that day.

28 August 1944:
The convoy arrives at Saei, Formosa (now Tsoying harbour, Taiwan).

29 August 1944:
The convoy departs Port Saei and it arrives at Takao later that day.

31 August 1944:
Sustains an airstrike. Fires 916 13mm MGs shots at the attacking aircraft.

1 September 1944:
Supplied with 13mm ammunition.

3 September 1944:
Replenishes 40-tons of boiler water.

11 September 1944:
Replenishes 30-tons of coal.

13 September 1944:
Replenishes 55-tons of boiler water.

17 September 1944:
Replenishes 30-tons of coal. Embarks 64 passengers. Transfers from ‘G’ anchorage to Saei (Tsoying), Formosa.

18 September 1944:
Departs Saei for Manila in convoy TAMA-26 also consisting of IJA tanker NICHINAN MARU (1945 grt), IJA transports MIZUHO, SHIRANESAN, ARABIA and AWAJI MARUs IJA shared transports (A/C-AK) EIMAN, TOSHIKAWA, HOTEN and TSINGTAO MARUs escorted by subchasers CH-63 and CH-41, and minesweepers W-17 and W-20. Arrives at Tapan Lieh, Formosa later that day.

19 September 1944:
Departs Tapan Lieh and arrives in Sabtang Strait waters later that same day.

20 September 1944:
Departs Sabtang Strait waters and arrives at Musa Bay, Fuga Island, Babuyan Archipelago, Philippines later that same day.

21 September 1944:
At 0300, the convoy departs Musa Bay. HOTEN MARU has engine trouble and remains at Musa Bay. At 0700, a Japanese aircraft flies to a position forward of the convoy from which it dive-bombs a submarine. At 0705, Cdr (later Vice Admiral) Glynn R. Donaho's (USNA ’27) USS PICUDA (SS-382) torpedoes and sinks AWAJI MARU carrying 600 passengers and 500-tons of ammunition, at 18-43N, 120-53E. 284 passengers, three escort troops and 40 crewmen, a total of 327 people are killed. NICHINAN MARU rescues survivors.

At 0835, Cdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Louis D. McGregor's (USNA ’30) USS REDFISH (SS-395) torpedoes and sinks MIZUHO MARU at 18-37N, 120-41E. 1,313 passengers 81 crewmen and three gunners of the 2,150 troops and 3,029 civilian employees she was carrying are lost with her. TOYO MARU No. 3 drops two DCs, W-17 counterattacks while the other vessels pick up survivors. CH-20 rescues 622 survivors, CH-63 rescues 150 men, W-20 rescues 370 men, TOYO MARU No. 3 rescues 980, tug/rescue vessel KEISHU MARU (ex British HENRY KESWICK) rescues 1630 men and motorised sailboats BANGI and SAROMAGE rescue 268 survivors. At 2215, the convoy arrives at Lapoc Bay.

22 September 1944:
Disembarks rescues.

26 September 1944:
Departs Lapoc Bay still in convoy TAMA-26. At 1645, arrives at North San Fernando, Luzon.

27 September 1944:
Disembarks 64 passengers.

29 September 1944:
Departs San Fernando still in convoy TAMA-26. At 1645, arrives at Santa Cruz, Luzon later that same day.

30 September 1944:
Departs Santa Cruz.

2 October 1944:
Arrives at Manila, Luzon. Tethers to Pier No. 3 and starts unloading cargo.

4 October 1944:
Transfers from Pier No. 3 to nearby buoy No. 9.

4 ~ 5 October 1944:
Unloads coal.

5 October 1944:
Replenishes coal.

6 October 1944:
Transfers from buoy No. 9 to Manila Bay anchorage.

7 October 1944:
Transfers from Manila Bay anchorage to nearby shore.

10 October 1944:
Transfers from shore to inner harbor rolling anchor.

11 October 1944:
Departs Manila and calls at Limao, Calauan. Departs there later that day.

13 October 1944:
Arrives at Baquit Bay, Palawan.

17 October 1944:
Departs Baquit Bay in KOKURYU MARU convoy but returns back there later that day.

18 October 1944:
Departs again Bakitto Bay in KOKURYU MARU convoy.

19 October 1944:
Arrives at Limao.

20 October 1944:
Departs Limao and arrives at Manila later that same day. Replenishes 65-tons of boiler water.

21 October 1944:
At 2340, departs Manila for Takao in KOKURYU MARU convoy also called MATA-30, escorted by destroyers KURETAKE, HARUKAZE and TAKE, and subchaser CH-20 and also consisting of fleet supply ship KURASAKI, auxiliary transport (ex-seaplane tender) KIMIKAWA MARU, IJN requisitioned cargo ships (B-AK) DAITEN and EIKO MARUs, IJA tanker KIKUSUI (ex-Dutch IRIS), IJA shared transports (A/C-AK) KOKURYU, TENSHIN, SHIKISAN and ARISAN MARUs, IJA transports FUYUKAWA MARU and SHINSEI MARU No. 1 and Government survey vessel (C-AGDE) RYOFU MARU.

23 October 1944:
South China Sea, WNW of Cape Bojeador, Luzon, Philippines. About 1730 (JST), Cdr Alan B. Banister’s (USNA ’28) USS SAWFISH (SS-276) attacks the last ship in the convoy - KIMIKAWA MARU. She is hit portside aft in hold No.7. by four of five torpedoes fired. Loaded with bauxite, fuel oil, aviation gasoline and other cargo, KIMIKAWA MARU sinks in 2.5 minutes at 18-58N, 118-46E. 24 crewmen and 81 passengers go down with her.

24 October 1944:
The convoy comes under a combined wolfpack attack by five submarines. The submarines’ attacks scatter the convoy. At 0050, SHINSEI MARU No. 1 is damaged by a dud torpedo at 19-32N, 118-37E. At 0100, KOKURYU MARU is torpedoed and sunk at 19-42N, 118-38E, likely by LtCdr George H. Browne's (USNA ’34) USS SNOOK (SS-279) or LtCdr Richard W. Peterson's (USNA ’31) USS ICEFISH (SS-367). Of 1357 passengers on board, 324 of them together with five gunners and 63 crewmen are killed. At 0315, KIKUSUI MARU (ex-Dutch tanker IRIS) is torpedoed and sunk by USS SNOOK at 19-46N, 118-30E. 12 crewmen are KIA.

At 0605 TENSHIN MARU is torpedoed twice and sunk by either USS SNOOK or LtCdr Edward N. Blakely's (USNA ’34) (later KIA) USS SHARK (SS-314) or both, at 19-54N 119-00E. The ship was loaded with 6,250 tons of bauxite and five escort troops and 47 crewmen are KIA.

At 0758, SHIKISAN MARU is torpedoed by LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Maurice H. Rindskopf's (USNA ’38) USS DRUM (SS-228) and sinks in 90 seconds at 20-27N, 118-31E. The ship is time loaded with 1,500 tons mixed goods, 3,000 tons crude rubber and 3,300 tons of manganese. 11 crew and four passengers die in the sinking. Soon after, DAITEN MARU, sailing in ballast, is also torpedoed and sunk by LtCdr James H. Ashley's (USNA ’34) USS SEADRAGON (SS-194) at 20-12N, 119-01E. Five crewmen are killed.

At 1225, straggling SHINSEI MARU No. 1, loaded with bauxite, is torpedoed by USS SNOOK and sinks in three minutes at 20-31N, 118-42E. Three gunners and 10 of crewmen are killed in the sinking. At 1405, EIKO MARU is torpedoed by SEADRAGON and sinks at 20-35N 118-32E. The ship had rescued about 100 survivors from SHINSEI MARU No. 1 and many of these men die, with one crewman from EIKO MARU being killed.

Finally, at 1730, ARISAN MARU is torpedoed and sunk, probably by Blakely's USS SHARK (sunk soon after by HARUKAZE and TAKE) at 20-00N, 118-44E. This IJA transport is carrying 1782 POWs. Only nine of them survive the sinking. Two crewmen, 13 gunners and 27 other passengers are KIA. During these attacks TOYO MARU No. 3 Drops 4 DCs against an enemy submarine.

25 October 1944:
Arrives in Mako waters.

26 October 1944:
Departs Mako area and at 0715, arrives at Takao. Tethers to G anchorage.

27 ~ 31 October 1944:
Starts cargo handling. Replenishes 95-tons of boiler water.

28 October 1944:
Replenishes 125-tons of coal.

1 November 1944:
Replenishes 50-tons of boiler water. At 1800, departs Takao for Manila in convoy MOMA-06 also consisting of IJA shared tankers (A/C-AO) SHIMOTSU and EIWA MARUs, civilian tanker (C-AO) ASOKAWA MARU, IJN requisitioned cargo ship (ex-IJA transport) (B-AK) TOTTORI MARU, IJA transports HAMBURG, ATLAS, SHINSHO, SHINETSU, KAKOGAWA and SEKIHO MARUs, IJA shared transports (A/C-AK) DAITOKU and SEIWA MARUs escorted by old destroyer KURETAKE, kaibokan CD-1, CD-3 and CD-7, mineweeper W-27, subchaser CH-41 and fleet supply ship KURASAKI.

2 November 1944:
At 2305, LtCdr John B. Hess’s (USNA ’37) USS POMFRET (SS-391) torpedoes and damages ATLAS MARU. TOYO MARU No. 3 drops two DCs.

3 November 1944:
At 0435, Hess attacks ATLAS MARU again, but misses. At 0500, USS POMFRET also torpedoes and damages HAMBURG MARU. 18 crewmen and four out of 415 troops aboard are KIA. Calls at Sabtang. Departs there and arrives at distress site early morning. At 0545, rescues passengers. At 0715, preparation is made to tow HAMBURG MARU. At 1335, towing is aborted. At 1400, all survivors are rescued. At 1850, one of the escorts scuttles HAMBURG MARU. Departs distress site and arrives again at Sabtang later in the day. 145 survivors are also picked up by minesweeper W-17.

4 November 1944:
About 1330, ATLAS MARU finally goes aground at Sabtang. She was carrying a deck cargo of Shinyo Explosive Motor Boats (EMBs) and 1,325 troops, many from the 2nd Tank Division’s 2nd Battalion, 2nd Mobile Infantry, and passengers. The 13th Shinyo Squadron loses its 50 EMBs and 79 of its 187 men. Two crewmen also are KIA. Torpedo boat SAGI arrives from Takao and joins the escort.

6 November 1944:
Departs Sabtang.

8 November 1944:
Off Cape Bolinao, Luzon. LtCdr Guy E. O'Neil, Jr’s (USNA ’37) USS GUNNEL (SS-253) torpedoes and sinks SAGI. 86 sailors and 31 passengers are rescued by minesweeper W-17.

The convoy later arrives at Santa Cruz, Philippines. Supplies 80-tons of coal to minesweeper W-20.

Warned of a typhoon in the area, the convoy but TOYO MARU No. 3, departs the same day and arrives at Manila Bay at 2238.

9 November 1944:
Cargo handling is ended. Departs Santa Cruz and arrives at Limao later in the day.

10 November 1944:
Departs Limao and arrives at Manila later that day. Survivors are disembarked. Starts cargo handling but due to a water pump failure, handling operations are aborted.

11 November 1944:
Supplies 80-tons of coal to minesweeper W-17, 75-tons to W-18 and 120-tons to W-20. Replenishes 40-tons of boiler water.

13 November 1944:
Fires 13mm rounds against attacking aircraft.

14 November 1944:
Fires about 2,000 13mm rounds against attacking aircraft.

16 November 1944:
Replenishes 70-tons of boiler water.

17 November 1944:
Replenishes 24-tons of boiler water.

18 November 1944:
Supplies 50-tons of coal to minesweeper W-21. Damaged water pump repair is completed. Cargo handling operations are resumed.

19 November 1944:
Cargo handling is discontinued.

20 ~ 21 November 1944:
Cargo handling is resumed. Replenishes 80-tons of coal.

22 November 1944:
Loads 16 funerary urns. Embarks 50 passengers.

24 November 1944:
Replenishes 14-tons of boiler water.

25 November 1944:
Fires 13mm rounds against attacking aircraft.

27 November 1944:
Replenishes 20-tons of boiler water.

28 November 1944:
Due to scheduled route modification, unloads 16 funerary urns and disembarks 50 passengers. Embarks 23 other passengers.

29 November 1944:
At 0825, departs Manila in convoy MASA-12A also consisting of other unidentified ships escorted by minesweeper W-21.

4 December 1944:
At 1225, arrives at Saigon, Indochina (now Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam).

3 March 1945:
Arrives at Pake Liehtao (Bage Liehdao).

4 March 1945:
Departs Pake Liehtao and arrives at Zhoushan Island, near Shanghai, China.

5 March 1945:
Departs Zhoushan.

9 March 1945:
Arrives at Kirun. Tethers to Pier No. 3.

10 March 1945:
Unloads cargo.

11 March 1945:
Transfers to Buoy No. 2.

13 ~ 15 March 1945:
Loads coal.

15 March 1945:
Transfers to Kirun outer harbor.

16 March 1945:
Transfers to Buoy No. 2.

17 March 1945:
Departs Kirun.

18 March 1945:
Arrives at Mako.

19 March 1945:
Tethers to rolling anchor, alongside the pier.

19 ~ 20 March 1945:
Unloads ammunition and coal.

20 March 1945:
Embarks 244 passengers. Departs Mako.

21 March 1945:
Arrives at Saei.

22 March 1945:
Departs Saei and arrives at Takao later that day.

24 March 1945:
Loads rice and aviation gasoline. Departs Takao and arrives at Saei later that day.

29 March 1945:
Sustains an airstrike. Damaged and partially flooded by bomb near misses and blast.

6 April 1945:
Unloads coal.

7 April 1945:
Tethered to South Pier. Undergoes emergency repairs from a tugboat repair party.

30 April 1945:
Still under repairs at Saei.

1 June 1945:
Departs Takao Naval Base.

2 June 1945:
Departs Takao on trials and returns back to port later that day.

3 ~ 6 June 1945:
Loads cement.

6 June 1945:
Loads empty cans.

7 ~ 8 June 1945:
Replenishes boiler water and coal.

9 June 1945:
Embarks five passengers and departs Takao.

10 June 1945:
Runs aground. Later disengages from reed and arrives at Mako later in the day. Unloads cargo.

11 June 1945:
Loads weapons and embarks passengers. Departs Mako for Takao. Runs aground off Saei later that same day.

12 June 1945:
Bombed and hit during an airstrike. Fires with her MGs against attacking aircraft. Four crewmen are KIA. ‘Abandon Ship’ is ordered.

15 June 1945:
Two Daihatsu craft, weapons and cargo are recovered by two barges.

17 June 1945:
The ship’s weapons are recovered by five barges.

18 June 1945:
Bombed and hit again near hold No. 3. Set afire.

19 ~ 20 June 1945:
Weapons recovery is completed.

24 June 1945:
8-cm deck gun and other equipment are landed.

30 June 1945:
8-cm deck gun is disassembled and related equipment is removed.

3 May 1947:
Removed from the Navy’s list under instruction No. 327.


Authors notes :
[1] NRT is a ship's cargo volume capacity expressed in "register tons", one of which equals to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). It is calculated by subtracting non-revenue-earning spaces i.e. spaces not available for carrying cargo, for example engine rooms, fuel tanks and crew quarters, from the ship's gross register tonnage (GRT). Net register tonnage (NRT) is not a measure of the weight of the ship or its cargo, and should not be confused with terms such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

[2] There were two categories of Zatsuyosen. (Ko) category with an IJN Captain as supervisor aboard and (Otsu) category without.

Thanks go to Gengoro S. Toda of Japan. Thanks also go to Jeff Donahoo of Iowa for Officers’ info and to the late John Whitman for information on intercepted Japanese messages. Special thanks go to Hans Mcilveen of the Netherlands for info on FRUMEL intercepts.

Gilbert Casse and Peter Cundall.

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