TOKUSETSU SENSUI-BOKAN!


(Santos Maru by Ueda Kihachiro)

IJN Submarine Tender
SANTOS MARU: Tabular Record of Movement

© 1998-2015 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall.

Revision 6


5 January 1925:
Nagasaki. Laid down at Mitsubishi Shipbuilding.

5 September 1925:
Launched and named SANTOS MARU.

10 December 1925:
Completed as a 7,266 GRT passenger liner owned by the OSK (Osaka Shosen Kaisha Kisen) Line.

18 December 1925:
Commences South American run.

29 July 1926:
Arrives at Santos, Brazil on No. 66 Emigrant Voyage (of mostly Japanese agricultural laborers to South America). [1]

16 January 1927:
Arrives at Santos on No. 76 Emigrant Voyage.

21 July 1927:
Arrives at Santos on No. 82 Emigrant Voyage.

13 January 1928:
Arrives at Santos on No.92 Emigrant Voyage.

7 July 1928:
Arrives at Santos on No.101 Emigrant Voyage.

3 January 1929:
Arrives at Santos on No.112 Emigrant Voyage.

26 June 1929:
Arrives at Santos on No. 122 Emigrant Voyage.

11 December 1929:
Arrives at Santos on No. 133 Emigrant Voyage.

29 June 1930 :
Arrives at Santos on No. 146 Emigrant Voyage.

10 December 1930:
Arrives at Santos on No. 155 Emigrant Voyage.

6 June 1931:
Arrives at Santos on No. 164 Emigrant Voyage.

11 November 1932:
Arrives at Santos on No.170 Emigrant Voyage.

3 May 1933:
Arrives at Santos on No. 175 Emigrant Voyage.

5 October 1933:
Arrives at Santos on No. 185 Emigrant Voyage.

22 March 1934:
Arrives at Santos on No. 192 Emigrant Voyage.

29 August 1934:
Arrives at Santos on No. 203 Emigrant Voyage.

3 February 1935:
Arrives at Santos on No. 213 Emigrant Voyage.

2 July 1935:
Arrives at Santos on No. 223 Emigrant Voyage.

2 December 1935:
Arrives at Santos on No. 233 Emigrant Voyage.

29 April 1936:
Arrives at Santos on No. 242 Emigrant Voyage.

28 December 1936:
Arrives at Santos on No. 266 Emigrant Voyage.

January 1937:
In OSK service. Provides around-the-world service from her home-port of Kobe. Ports of call include Yokohama, Hong Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Durban, Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Belem, Cristobal, Balboa and Los Angeles.

30 May 1937:
Arrives at Santos on No.270 Emigrant Voyage.

5 October 1937:
Arrives at Santos on No.274 Emigrant Voyage.

4 July 1938:
Arrives at Santos on No.281 Emigrant Voyage.

28 November 1938:
Arrives at Santos on No. 284 Emigrant Voyage.

22 February 1939:
Departs Kobe for Yokkaichi on No. 288 Emigrant Voyage.

23 February 1939:
Departs Yokkaichi.

26 February 1939:
Departs Yokosuka.

28 February 1939:
Departs Kobe.

5 March 1939
Departs Hong Kong.

11 March 1939:
Departs Singapore.

17 March 1939:
Departs Colombo.

28 March 1939:
Departs Durban.

1 April 1939:
Departs Cape Town.

12 April 1939:
Departs Rio de Janeiro.

14 April 1939:
Departs Santos.

17 April 1939:
Departs Montevideo.

18 April 1939:
Arrives at Buenos Aires.

1 August 1939:
Departs Kobe.

2 August 1939:
Departs Yokkaichi.

5 August 1939:
Departs Yokohama.

7 August 1939:
Departs Kobe.

12 August 1939:
Departs Hong Kong.

18 August 1939:
Departs Singapore.

24 August 1939:
Departs Colombo.

4 September 1939:
Departs Durban.

8 September 1939:
Departs Cape Town.

19 September 1939:
Departs Rio de Janeiro.

21 September 1939:
Departs Santos.

24 September 1939:
Departs Montevideo.

25 September 1939:
Arrives at Buenos Aires.

17 December 1939:
Departs Kobe.

18 December 1939:
Departs Yokkaichi.

21 December 1939:
Departs Yokohama.

23 December 1939:
Departs Kobe.

28 December 1939:
Departs Hong Kong.

3 January 1940:
Departs Singapore.

9 January 1940:
Departs Colombo.

20 January 1939:
Departs Durban.

24 January 1940:
Departs Cape Town.

4 February 1940:
Departs Rio de Janeiro.

6 February 1940:
Departs Santos.

9 February 1940:
Departs Montevideo.

10 February 1940:
Arrives at Buenos Aires.

8 June 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

20 June 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

2 July 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

13 July 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

25 July 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

6 August 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

18 August 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

30 August 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

10 September 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

21 September 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

1 October 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

13 October 1940
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

26 October 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

6 November 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe.

7 December 1940:
Departs Dairen for Kobe, then Keelung (Kirun) and Takao.

1941:
Requisitioned by the IJN as a submarine depot ship for SubRon 2. During the year the ship is renamed MANJU MARU.

1 March 1941:
Maizuru Naval Yard. Conversion to a sub tender is begun. The CO of light cruiser KISO, Captain (later Rear Admiral) Kiyama Tatsuo (42) assumes temporary command.

12 March 1941:
Captain Matsubara Kazo (39) assumes command.

31 March 1941:
Initial works are completed.

April 1941:
Departs Maizuru for Yokosuka.

10 April 1941:
Yokosuka Naval Yard. Conversion to a sub tender is continued.

13 May 1941:
The conversion is completed.

11 August 1941:
Recalled Captain-Retired (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Seki Tei (36)(former CO of I-51) assumes command.

21 February 1942:
Departs Yokosuka.

28 February 1942:
Staring Bay, Kendari, Celebes. Submarine I-5 runs aground on a reef.

10 March 1942:
Salvage vessel YUSHO MARU arrives at Staring Bay and successfully salves I-5 from the reef. SANTOS MARU assists in salving I-5, then performs repairs on her.

8 April 1942:
Departs Kure.

10 April 1942:
SANTOS MARU is the tender for Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Ichioka Hisashi's (42) SubRon 2's SubDivs 7 and 8.

12 April 1942:
Arrives at Sasebo.

18 April 1942:
Departs Sasebo.

19 April 1942:
Departs Nagasaki.

21 April 1942:
Departs Takao, Formosa.

1 May 1942:
Arrives at Yokosuka. One 150-mm gun is fitted in the bow and two machine guns and a depth charge device are installed.

3 May 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

8 May 1942:
Departs Takao.

15 May 1942:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

17 May 1942:
Departs Yokosuka.

19 May 1942:
Arrives at Kure.

21 May 1942:
Departs Kure.

30 May 1942:
Kure Navy Yard. In Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral), the Marquis, Daigo Tadashige's (40) (former CO of ASHIGARA) Kure SubRon with the I-34 and I-35. Assists with ther working-up of RO-100.

6 June 1942:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

13 June 1942:
Departs Yokosuka.

22 June 1942:
Arrives at Truk.

20 August 1942:
With tender CHOGEI in Rear Admiral Daigo's Kure SubRon consisting of SubDivs 6, 18, 19, 26 and 33.

2 September 1942:
At 1100 departs Yokosuka.

4 September 1942:
At 1500 arrives at Kure. Reassigned to Rear Admiral Ishizaki Noboru's (42) SubRon 11.

18 November 1942:
Captain (later Rear Admiral) Imaizumi Yoshijiro (44) (former CO of SHIRIYA) assumes command. Captain Seki is reassigned to the Yokosuka Naval District and later becomes CO of tenders TSUKUSHI and YASUKUNI MARUs.

14 September 1942:
Departs Kure and anchors in the Harima Nada later that day.

21 September 1942:
Departs Harima Nada.

23 September 1943:
Arrives at Kure.

29 September 1942:
Departs Kure and arrives later that day in Hiroshima Bay.

1 October 1942:
Departs Hiroshima Bay and later that day arrives at Kure.

7 October 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in Suo Nada (Iyo Nada vicinity).

14 October 1942:
Departs Suo Nada.

15 October 1942:
Arrives at Kure.

20 October 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day anchors in Iyo Nada towards Bungo Suido.

28 October 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

29 October 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day anchors in Hiroshima Bay.

31 October 1942:
Departs Hiroshima Bay and later that day arrives at Kure.

4 November 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

8 November 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

16 November 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

22 November 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

28 November 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

3 December 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

7 December 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

10 December 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

14 December 1942:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Suo Nada before later moving to Iyo Nada.

21 December 1942:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

9 January 1943:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada before later moving to Bungo Suido.

13 January 1943:
Departs Bungo Suido and later that day arrives at Kure.

15 January 1943:
Docked.

19 January 1943:
Undocked and departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Suo Nada before later moving to Iyo Nada.

25 January 1943:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

1 February 1943:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

8 February 1943:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at inner Eta-Jima.

9 February 1943:
Departs Eta Jima and arrives later that day at Kure.

15 February 1943:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in the Iyo Nada.

20 February 1943:
Departs Iyo Nada and later that day arrives at Kure.

25 February 1943:
Departs Kure and later that day arrives in Nipponkai (Sea of Japan).

27 February 1943:
Departs Nipponkai and arrives at Maizuru.

1 March 1943:
Departs Maizuru and returns to Nipponkai.

5 March 1943:
Departs Nipponkai and later that day arrives at Kure.

25 March 1943:
Reclassified as a Miscellaneous Auxiliary in the Yokosuka Naval District. Captain Imaizumi is reassigned as CO of NAKA. Capt Itani Yoshiharu (38) (former CO of ODOMARI) is appointed CO.

8 April 1943:
Departs Kure.

12 April 1943:
Arrives at Sasebo.

18 April 1943:
Departs Sasebo.

19 April 1943:
Departs Nagasaki in fleet convoy Sa-8 also consisting of UNZEN, KITSURIN and SHANGHAI MARUs escorted by the escort KAII (ex Chinese HAI WEI).

21 April 1943:
At 0100 due to arrive at Hua Niao Shan and is detached for Taiwan.

24 April 1943:
At 1600 departs Takao for Yulin.

3 May 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

8 May 1943:
Departs Takao.

15 May 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

17 May 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

19 May 1943:
Arrives at Kure.

21 May 1943:
Departs Kure.

28 May 1943:
At 1500 departs Shanghai in convoy Shi-23 also consisting of UNZEN, SHANGHAI, KITSURIN and SAGARA MARUs escorted by minelayer TSUBAME. At 2230 departs Hua Niao Shan.

30 May 1943:
At 0800 scheduled to arrive at Nagasaki.

31 May 1943:
At 1700 scheduled to arrive at Mutsure.

6 June 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

13 June 1943:
Departs Yokosuka in convoy No. 3613A also consisting of Storeship MAMIYA and transport MITAKESAN MARU escorted by kaibokan OKI. The convoy sails at 9.5 knots.

22 June 1943:
Arrives at Truk.

17 July 1943:
Departs Truk for Kwajalein in convoy 5172 also consisting of aircraft transport FUJIKAWA MARU escorted by ships from submarine chaser division No.31.

21 July 1943:
At 1318 arrives at Kwajalein.

5 August 1943:
At 0400, departs Kwajalein in convoy No. 6053 making 11.5 knots and consisting of SANTOS, MITAKESAN and KAISHO MARUs escorted by subchaser CH-33.

9 August 1943:
At 1100, arrives at Truk's N Channel.

21 August 1943:
Departs Truk in fleet convoy No. 4821 consisting of transports MANJU MARU (ex-SANTOS MARU), KAISHO, KENAN and MITAKESAN MARUs and colliers SOYO MARU and MIKAGE MARU No. 18 escorted by destroyers IKAZUCHI and YUZUKI and auxiliary gunboat SHOEI MARU.

22 August 1943:
LtCdr (later KIA) Charles F. Brindupke's (USNA ’32) USS TULLIBEE (SS-284) sights convoy No. 4821. Brindupke, on his first patrol as CO of USS TULLIBEE, closes to 2,000 yards. He fires three Mark-14 steam torpedoes at the nearest freighter. Two minutes later, he fires three more at another ship. One of the destroyers heads towards USS TULLIBEE's position. Brindupke takes USS TULLIBEE deep. At 1659, he hears a torpedo explosion, soon followed by two more, then breaking up noises. At 1706, listing to port, KAISHO MARU carrying empty fuel drums, sinks at 10-13N, 147-20E. Three crewmen are KIA. Her survivors are rescued and the convoy proceeds. When Brindupke surfaces, he sees over 1,000 empty 50-gallon oil drums, but no ships.

29 August 1943:
Arrives at Yokosuka. Undergoes maintenance.

12 September 1943:
Departs Yokosuka.

19 September 1943:
Arrives at Moji.

21 September 1943:
Departs Moji.

10 October 1943:
Departs Singapore in a convoy with KUNISHIMA MARU.

12 October 1943:
Minesweeper W-8 joins the convoy at 05-20S, 108-35E and commences escort.

13 October 1943:
At 1700, arrives at Surabaya.

5 November 1943:
At 1000 departs Balikpapan escorted by patrol boat PB-102 (ex USS STEWART)

7 November 1943:
At 1230, arrives at Surabaya.

15 November 1943:
At 1240, arrives at Surabaya.

1 December 1943:
Arrives at Takao at 1100 in a convoy consisting of SANTOS, TEIRITSU (ex-French LECONTE DE LISLE) and TARUSHIMA MARUs.

9 December 1943:
Arrives at Sasebo.

11 December 1943:
Departs Sasebo.

13 December 1943:
Arrives at Osaka.

17 December 1943:
The civilian reserve (gunzoku) skipper Ishimoto Kamenoshin is appointed CO on paper.

20 December 1943:
Capt Sekimoto Orinosuke (38)(former CO of HEIAN MARU) is appointed CO, relieving Ishimoto on 4 January 1944.

19 December 1943:
Departs Osaka. 20 December 1943: Capt Sekimoto Orinosuke (38)(former CO of HEIAN MARU) is appointed CO, relieving Ishimoto on 4 January 1944.

24 December 1943:
Arrives at Yokohama.

14 February 1944:
Departs Yokohama.

12 March 1944:
Arrives at Yokosuka.

19 March 1944:
Departs Yokosuka.

20 March 1944:
At 0200, departs Tateyama in Marianas troop reinforcement convoy Higashi-Matsu ("East Pine") No. 3 Special ("Toku"). The convoy consists of transports MANJU, ASAKA and SANYO MARUs escorted by destroyers KISHINAMI, OKINAMI and ASASHIMO and subchaser CH-38. These are the fast elements of the No. 3 reinforcement movement. [2]

28 March 1944:
Arrives at Truk. Departs later the same day.

1 April 1944:
At 1545 departs Truk in convoy No. 4401 consisting of ASAKA MARU and MANJU (ex SANTOS) MARU, escorted by submarine chaser CH-30 and destroyer ASASHIMO.

4 April 1944:
At 0710 arrives at Saipan.

7 April 1944:
At 0540 departs Saipan in convoy No. 4407 consisting of ASAKA MARU and MANJU (ex SANTOS) MARU, escorted by kaibokan NOMI and submarine chasers CH-16 and CH-18.

12 April 1944:
At 1600 arrives at Yokosuka. Undergoes maintenance at the Asano shipyard.

13 May 1944:
Departs Yokohama.

14 May 1944:
At 0430, departs Tateyama in convoy Higashi Matsu No. 8 carrying elements of the IJA's 43rd Infantry Division. The convoy consists of MANJU MARU and army transports TOSAN and NOTO MARUs escorted by destroyer SATSUKI, kaibokan AMAKUSA, CD-4 and CD-6. The convoy steams in a wide arc in bad weather.

19 May 1944:
Arives at Saipan at 1030. Disembarks troops.

20 May 1944:
Departs Saipan at 1800 in convoy Higashi Matsu No. 8 return convoy. The convoy again consists of consists of MANJU, TOSAN and NOTO MARUs, this time escorted by kaibokan NOMI and OKI and subchaser CH-30.

26 May 1944:
Arrives at Tokyo. Departs later that day.

31 May 1944:
Arrives at Muroran.

20 June 1944:
Departs Moji at 1930 in convoy HI-67 for Singapore. HI-67 consists of transports MANJU, NANKAI, KINUGASA, ASAKA, ASAHISAN, GOKOKU and HAKOZAKI MARUs and oilers MIRI, OTORISAN, NICHINAN No. 2, SARAWAK and SHINEI MARUs escorted by minelayer SHIRATAKA, subchaser CH-61, destroyers ASAGAO and KURETAKE and kaibokan HIRADO, KURAHASHI, CD-2, CD-5 and CD-13.

29 June 1944:
Near dawn, LtCdr (later Captain) Anton W. Gallaher's (USNA ’33) USS BANG (SS-385) picks up convoy HI-67. Gallaher makes a long "end-around" in daylight. At about 1510, he fires all ten torpedoes in his bow and stern tubes at three ships. He damages oilers MIRI and SARAWAK MARUs. MIRI MARU is hit under the bridge and SARAWAK MARU in the bow, but each manages to proceed to Manila.

E 30 June 1944:
The main convoy arrives at Manila.

3 July 1944:
At 0600, HI-67 departs Manila, less GOKOKU, SARAWAK and MIRI MARUs.

9 July 1944:
Arrives at Singapore at 1640.

4 August 1944:
At 2100, departs Singapore for Moji in fleet convoy HI-70. The convoy consists of MANJU, KINUGASA, ARIMASAN MARUs and oilers SERIA, KUROSHIO, HAKKO, OMUROSAN and OTOWASAN MARUs, screened by SHINYO, KASHII, destroyer SHIMOTSUKI and kaibokan CHIBURI, SADO, CD-13 and CD-19. MANJU MARU carries a cargo of bauxite and 130 passengers.

12 August 1944:
SADO is detached to hunt an enemy submarine. Later, she proceeds to Kirun separately.

15 August 1944:
HI-70 arrives at Moji at 1430.

1 October 1944:
Departs Moji at 0800 in convoy HI-77. The convoy consists of transports MANJU, KINUGASA, ORYOKU MARUs, oilers OMUROSAN,OTOWASAN, ARITA, ITSUKUSHIMA, AKANE, TAIHO and KAIHO MARUs. German U-boat supply ship QUITO is also in the convoy as is another unidentified vessel. These 13 ships are escorted by kaibokan CHIBURI and CD-19, CD-21 and CD-27.

Arrives at Arikawa Bay that same day.

2 October 1944:
Departs Arikawa Bay for Singapore.

5 October 1944:
ORYOKU MARU is detached for Kirun. The rest of HI-77 arrives at Takao. The escort is bolstered by the inclusion of kaibokan ETOROFU and SHONAN before departing later the same day.

6 October 1944:
About 1410, LtCdr (later Captain) James B. Grady's (USNA ’33) USS WHALE (SS-239) fires five torpedoes at AKANE MARU. They all hit and the 10,000-ton oiler capsizes and sinks. Kaibokan CD-21 rescues her survivors and searches for the attacking submarine. At 1547, Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles W. Wilkins' (USNA ’24) USS SEAHORSE (SS-304) dives and begins an approach on the frigate from 16,900 yards. At 1757, Wilkins, now at 700 yards, fires a full bow spread of six torpedoes. One torpedo hits CD-21. She breaks in half and takes down 170 men including all survivors from AKANE MARU.

7 October 1944:
W of Manila. A wolf pack consisting of LtCdr (later Captain) Arnold H. Holtz’s (USNA ’31) USS BAYA (SS-318), LtCdr Henry D. Sturr’s (USNA ’33) USS BECUNA and LtCdr Francis W. Scanland, Jr’s (USNA ’34) USS HAWKBILL (SS-366) attacks convoy HI-77. At 2200, KINUGASA MARU carrying 1,000 port service workers and a cargo of ammunition, is hit by one or more torpedoes. Abandon Ship is ordered soon thereafter.

At 2224, USS HAWKBILL, running on the surface, attacks the same large freighter. Scanland fires three more torpedoes. This time two hit and cause a huge explosion. The entire area is bathed in light. A mushroom of white and yellow flame rises hundreds of feet in the air. [3]

Holtz’s USS BAYA also fires torpedoes at KINUGASA MARU and claims two hits. [4] At 2227, KINUGASA MARU sinks at 14-30 N, 115-446E. Ten passengers and 33 crewmen are killed. [5]

Immediately after the attack, MANJU MARU heads for the area and drops depth charges to prevent further attack.

12 October 1944:
Convoy HI-77 arrives at Singapore at 1500.

16 October 1944:
Hong Kong. Damaged in a USAAF 14th Air Force raid. Repairs at Hong Kong. Reclassified as a civilian transport.

12 November 1944:
Departs Takao at 1800 for Manila in convoy TAMA 31B consisting of MANJU MARU and 6 LST's (5 Navy, 1 Army) escorted by Patrol Boats Nos. 38 and 101.

15 November 1944:
Anchors off the west coast of Formosa to avoid Allied air attacks.

19 November 1944:
S side of the mouth of Lingayan Gulf. At 1700, arrives at Santiago Island Strait. Later that evening, TAMA 31B is attacked by 27 Grummans that inflict slight damage.

20 November 1944:
At 1030, departs for Manila.

21 November 1944:
Arrives at Manila at 1500.

22 November 1944:
Corregidor. MANJU MARU embarks 1,200 soldiers forward and another 1,200 soldiers aft. The troops include 430 survivors of battleship MUSASHI sunk a month earlier. A barge carrying other MUSASHI survivors gets lost in Manila Bay and its 80 survivors do not make it aboard.

23 November 1944:
Departs Manila at 1200 for Takao in convoy MATA-34 consisting only of MANJU MARU escorted by patrol boats Nos. 38 and 102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224) and submarine chaser CH-33.

24 November 1944:
Luzon Strait, 100 miles N of Cape Engano. LtCdr (later Rear Admiral/COMSUBPAC) John H. Maurer’s (USNA ’35) submerged USS ATULE (SS-403) sights a transport and three escorts heading NW toward Sabtang Island. At dark, Maurer surfaces and sets course so as to intercept the transport shortly after midnight.

25 November 1944:
At about 0125, as USS ATULE is setting up on the transport, one of her escorts also moves into periscope view. Maurer fires his six bow tubes at the overlapping targets, then turns his boat about and fires two stern tubes. USS ATULE scores two hits on each target. Patrol boat PB-38 (ex-DD YOMOGI) disintegrates and all aboard are killed. MANJU MARU is hit aft in hold No. 5 and goes dead in the water.

USS ATULE withdraws as the other two escorts search the area. The transport disappears from view and from radar. At about 0516, MANJU MARU sinks by the stern at 20-14N, 121-40 E. Twenty-four of her crew and about 700 of the 2400 military passengers on board are lost.

10 January 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.


Authors' Notes:
[1] Three quarters of all Japanese prewar immigrants to Brazil arrived between 1925 and 1935, when Japan was preparing for its military and territorial expansion in East Asia. In 1933, immigrants from Japan numbered 24,494 or 53.2 percent of all immigrants entering Brazil that year. Most hoped to return home when they had made enough money as plantation workers to start over in Japan. Often, they were not paid the agreed upon wages and living and working conditions were far worse than expected. They were forced to buy their food and other supplies at exorbitant prices at stores owned by plantation owners. In the late 1930s, the number of Japanese immigrants to Brazil sharply declined as Japanese emigration headed to Manchuria, China, and Korea.

[2] A slower section of Higashi-Matsu No. 3 Special consisting of 10 transports and supply ship HAYASAKI, escorted by light cruiser YUBARI, DesDiv 5's HATAKAZE, DesDiv 6's IKAZUCHI and DesDiv 32's TAMANAMI, torpedo boat OTORI, kaibokan HIRADO and NOMI and subchasers CH-48, CH-51 and CH-54 departed Kisarazu on 22 March 1944 in two echelons for Palau and Saipan.

[3] Most sources, including Japanese sources, credit USS HAWKBILL and USS BAYA with sinking KINUGASA MARU W of Balintang Channel, NNW of Luzon at 19-40N, 118-05E.

[4] BAYA claimed two hits at 2233 - six minutes after USS HAWKBILL reported KINUGASA MARU sank.

[5] The time of the torpedoing of KINUGASA MARU is based on Japanese records and varies from American records; however, the early abandonment of the ship better explains the low number of lives lost.

Thanks go to Toda Gengoro of Japan for information in Revision 1. Thanks also go to reader "Mucho" of Denmark for information about MUSASHI's survivors. Thanks also go to Gilbert Casse of France and Matthew Jones of Mississippi, USA.

- Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall.


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