(Type C Escort by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships")

IJN Escort Kurahashi :
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2006-2014 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

Revision 6

1 June 1943:
Tsurumi. Laid down at Nihon Kokan.

15 October 1943:
Launched and named KURAHASHI.

19 February 1944:
LtCdr Niki Izaburo (former CO of W-3) is appointed Chief Equipping Officer.

10 March 1944:
Completed and registered in the Yokosuka Naval District. Assigned to the Grand Escort Fleet's First Surface Escort Division. LtCdr Niki is appointed Commanding Officer.

23 March 1944:
KURAHASHI departs Moji with subchaser CH-26 escorting convoy MOTA-13 consisting of cargo ships HIGANE, YULIN, BIZEN, SHOKA, PACIFIC and KOZAN (ex-HENG SHAN) MARUs, TOYO MARU No. 2 and tankers MATSUMOTO, SHINEI, CHIHAYA and YOKO MARUs and YAMAMIZU MARU No. 2. (YOKO MARU joins the convoy from off Nagasaki)

30 March 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

2 April 1944:
At 1200, KURAHASHI departs Takao as the sole escort for convoy TAMO-15 consisting of cargo ships TAIKOKU, TAISEI, CHILE and YULIN MARU and tankers YOKO and ZUIYO MARUs.

9 April 1944:
At 1200, arrives at Moji. (YOKO MARU has already detached for Hakata).

20 April 1944:
At 0600, KURAHASHI departs Moji with kaibokan CD-10, CD-11 and CD-20 escorting convoy HI-59 consisting of tankers OKIKAWA, NIPPO, EIHO, NIYO, MANEI, OTORISAN, TENEI MARUs, and cargo liners MANKO, TEIHOKU (ex French PERSEE) and AOBASAN MARUs. [1]

21 April 1944:
KURAHASHI departs Tungchiaoshan (near Shanghai ) with destroyers ASAKAZE, SHIRATSUYU and FUJINAMI, kaibokan CD-20 and CD-22, minelayer SHIRATAKA (F), minesweeper W-22, subchasers CH-37, CH-38, gunboats UJI, ATAKA and auxiliary minesweeper TAMA MARU No. 7escorting the "Take" convoy carrying troops of the IJA's 32nd and 35th divisions from China to New Guinea via Manila. The convoy consists of KAZUURA, MITSUKI, BRAZIL, TENSHINZAN, TAJIMA, ADEN, YOZAN, MANSHU, FUKUYO, KANAN, TEIKAI (ex German FULDA) and TEIKA MARUs (ex French CAP VARELLA), YOSHIDA MARU No. 1, UNKAI MARU No.12 and two unidentified ships.

E 25 April 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

26 April 1944:
NIYO MARU suffers an engine breakdown and is towed by MANKO MARU to Woosung with CD 11 as escort. Meanwhile KURAHASHI departs Takao.

At about 0600 that same day, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Thomas M. Dykers' (USNA ’27) USS JACK (SS-259) makes a radar-assisted surface attack on the convoy. Dykers torpedoes and sinks YOSHIDA MARU No. 1 at 18-06N, 119-40E. She takes down 2,588 troops of the IJA's 210th Infantry Regiment of the 3800 men on board and 63 crewmen.

E 28 April 1944:
KURAHASHI and CD-20 are detached from the Take convoy and proceed to Takao.

28 April 1944:
Arrives at Manila and is detached from the Take convoy. KURAHASHI, KURI and CD-20 depart Manila. KURAHASHI and CD-20 later join the escort of convoy HI-59 then in the South China Sea.

4 May 1944:
KURAHASHI departs Manila with kaibokan KURI, CD-20, minesweeper W-17 and auxiliary subchaser TAKUNAN MARU No. 3 escorting convoy MATA-19 consisting of TETSUYO, NICHIZUI MARUs, TEIRYU (ex German AUGSBURG), RAKUYO, SHOGEN, DAKAR MARUs, BANSHU MARU No. 32 and two unidentified merchant ships.

E 7 May 1944:

9 May 1944:
Prior to arriving Takao KURAHASHI meets up with convoy MI-03 en route to Manila. The convoy then consists of DAITEN, DAIRIN, ATAGO, ZUIYO, KOTOKU, SHUNTEN, CHIYODA, SHOHEI, NIKKO, ETAJIMA, DAIJUN, TOUN, SHINNO and DAISEI MARUs, OGURA MARU No. 2, UNKAI MARU No. 5, EIYO MARU No. 2, SHINSEI MARU No. 1 with destroyers KARUKAYA and SHIOKAZE, torpedo boat HATO, kaibokan CD-1, CD-13, submarine chaser CH-37 and auxiliary gunboat PEKING MARU as escorts.

10 May 1944:
Off entrance to Manila Bay at 15.38N 119.32E Cdr (later Rear Admiral) James C. Dempsey's (USNA ’31) USS COD launches a series of attacks and sinks KARUKAYA with the loss of 73 crewmen KIA (including 60 missing) and then SHOHEI MARU, the latter with the loss of six crewmen and 38 others. The rest of the convoy arrives at Manila later that day and KURAHASHI is detached.

12 May 1944:
KURAHASHI probably departs Manila with destroyers ASAGAO, HIBIKI, INAZUMA, kaibokan SADO, CD-5, CD-7, CD-13 and escort carrier TAIYO escorting convoy HI-61 consisting of EIYO, AKANE, OTORISAN, SARAWAK, ASANAGI and MIZUHO MARUs and fleet oiler HAYASUI.

17 May 1944:
At 2100, the convoy arrives at Singapore.

23 May 1944:
At 0700, KURAHASHI departs Singapore for Moji with kaibokan SADO, CD-5, CD-7, CD-13 and escort carrier TAIYO escorting convoy HI-62 consisting of transports KINUGASA, NOSHIRO, NISSHO, TAMATSU and TEIRITSU (ex-French LECONTE DE LISLE) MARUs and tankers OTORISAN, SARAWAK and NICHINAN MARUs.

29 May 1944:
HI-62 arrives at Manila.

1 June 1944:
At 0400, HI-62 departs Manila.

8 June 1944:
Arrives at Mutsure anchorage, then proceeds to Moji arriving at 0230.

20 June 1944:
At 1930, KURAHASHI departs Moji for Singapore with destroyers ASAGAO and KURETAKE, minelayer SHIRATAKA, kaibokan HIRADO, CD-2, CD-5, CD-13 and subchaser CH-61 escorting convoy HI-67 consisting of transports MANJU, NANKAI, KINUGASA, ASAKA, ASAHISAN, GOKOKU and HAKOZAKI MARUs and oilers MIRI, OTORISAN, NICHINAN No. 2, SARAWAK and SHINEI MARUs.

29 June 1944:
LtCdr Anton W. Gallaher's (USNA ’33) USS BANG (SS-385) torpedoes and damages MIRI and SARAWAK MARUs. Both tankers are hit in the bow, but each manages to proceed to Manila.

30 June 1944:
The main convoy arrives at Manila.

3 July 1944:
At 0600, HI-67 departs Manila, less GOKOKU, ASAHISAN, SARAWAK and MIRI MARUs.

9 July 1944:
At 1640, arrives at Singapore.

14 July 1944:
At 0730, KURAHASHI, departs Singapore for Moji via Manila with minelayer SHIRATAKA and kaibokans HIRADO, CD-13, CD-20 and CD-28 escorting. convoy HI-68 consisting of transports KIYOKAWA and MANILA MARUs and tankers TOA, SHIMPO, NICHINAN No. 2, TOHO and OTORISAN MARUs.

20 July 1944:
At 1300, arrives at Manila. Later that day, KURAHASHI is detached to go to the aid of light cruiser OI torpedoed and sunk the previous day by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Reuben T. Whitaker’s (USNA ’34) USS FLASHER (SS-249) at 13-12N, 114-52E.

21 July 1944:
Destroyer SHIKINAMI rescued 369 survivors of OI, so KURAHASHI returns to Manila.

24 July 1944:
At 0600, KURAHASHI,departs Manila for Moji with escort carrier KAIYO, kaibokan HIRADO (F), ISHIGAKI, MIKURA, CD-11, CD-20 and torpedo boat HIYODORI escorting convoy HI-68. The convoy sails in three columns consisting of IJA landing craft depot ship MAYASAN MARU, oilers OTORISAN MARU and NICHINAN MARU No. 2 and escort carrier TAIYO in column No. 1; IJA landing ship KOZU MARU (a.k.a. TAKATSU MARU) and transports TOSAN, KASHII, NISSHO and AKI MARUs in column No. 2 and KIYOKAWA MARU and oilers ITSUKUSHIMA, TOA, TOHO and SHIMPO MARUs in column No. 3.

The ships steam at 11.5 knots, the average speed for HI series convoys. A three-submarine wolf pack of Cdr Whitaker’s (USNA ’34) USS FLASHER, LtCdr Franklin Hess’s (USNA ’35) USS ANGLER (SS-240) and LtCdr Francis D. Walker’s (USNA ’35) USS CREVALLE (SS-291) tracks the convoy.

26 July 1944:
Off Luzon. TOSAN MARU, AKI MARU and OTORISAN MARUs are sunk and KIYOKAWA MARU is damaged in the wolfpack's attacks. 46 men aboard OTORISAN MARU are KIA. On AKI MARU some 24 passengers were killed as were 14 ship’s gunners, and 3 crew; a total of 41 dead.

27 July 1944:
At 1100, arrives at Takao.

28 July 1944:
At 1800, departs at Takao.

3 August 1944:
Arrives at Moji.

10 August 1944:
KURAHASHI departs Imari Bay (Moji) for Singapore with Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral, posthumously) Kajioka Sadamichi's (39) (former CO of KISO) 6th Escort Convoy’s destroyers FUJINAMI and YUNAGI, kaibokan HIRADO, MIKURA, SHONAN and CD-11 and escort carrier TAIYO escorting convoy HI-71 comprised of oilers AZUSA, TEIYO, EIYO, ZUIHO, AMATSU, KYOKUTO and NIYO MARUs and HAKKO MARU No. 2, fleet oiler HAYASUI, food-supply ship IRAKO, transports TEIA (ex French ARAMIS), AWA, NOTO, HOKKAI, NOSHIRO MARUs and IJA landing craft depot ships TAMATSU MAYASAN MARUs and cargo ships KASHII, NISSHO and ORYOKU MARUs.

15 August 1944:
HI-71 arrives at Mako, Pescadores. HAKKO and ORYOKU MARUs and IRAKO are detached.

17 August 1944: Operation "SHO-1-GO" (Victory) - The Defense of the Philippines:
At 0800, in typhoon weather, HI-71 sorties from Mako for Manila. To strengthen HI-71's escort forces, old destroyer ASAKAZE and kaibokan SADO, MATSUWA and HIBURI arrive from Takao and kaibokan ETOROFU arrives from Saei, on orders of the First Surface Escort Division.

Two hours after leaving NIYO MARU suffers engine problems and returns to Mako.

18 August 1944:
At 0524, LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Louis D. McGregor's (USNA ’30) USS REDFISH (SS-395) torpedoes and damages EIYO MARU. ASAKAZE and YUNAGI are detached to escort her back to Takao.

Off Cape Bolinao, Luzon. At 2210, LtCdr (later Captain) Henry G. Munson's (USNA ’32) USS RASHER (SS-269) torpedoes and sinks oiler TEIYO MARU in a surface radar attack. 41 crewmen and 58 passengers are KIA. At 2222, Munson torpedoes and sinks carrier TAIYO at the rear of the convoy. Because of the fire and speed of sinking, most of her crew are lost and about 790 passengers perish; but by some miracle, Captain Sugino Shuichi (46) is among the just over 400 surviving crew and passengers. At 2310, USS RASHER, still on the surface, hits transport TEIA MARU (ex French ARAMIS) with three torpedoes using radar bearings. The ex-French liner is set afire and sinks. TEIA MARU was carrying 4,795 Army and 427 civilians. 2,316 troops, 275 passengers, six guards, four gunners, 10 special lookouts, and 54 crewmen are KIA.

19 August 1944:
The convoy splits into two groups. Just past midnight, USS RASHER, still running on the surface, closes on an eastbound group of three large ships and one escort. At 0033, LtCdr Munson puts two radar-directed torpedoes into the port sides of AWA and NOSHIRO MARUs. Both ships beach themselves near Port Currimao. LtCdr Charles M. Henderson's (USNA ’34) USS BLUEFISH (SS-222) and LtCdr (later Captain) Gordon W. Underwood's (USNA ’32) USS SPADEFISH (SS-411) join in the attack on HI-71. At 0320, USS BLUEFISH hits and sinks HAYASUI. Captain Sugiura Keizaburo (49) is KIA. He is promoted Rear Admiral, posthumously. The number of survivors is unknown. USS SPADEFISH hits TAMATSU MARU with two torpedoes and the big landing craft depot ship rolls over and takes down 4,755 troops and 135 crewmen. HI-71 makes for San Fernando.

At 0745, USN codebreakers intercept a message from the CO of KURAHASHI [re Convoy HI-71] that says “Am heading for Manila escorting NISSHO MARU, hugging coast along Cape Bolinao. 0745 Position: 17-45 N, 119-05 E: speed 13 knots.”

E 23 August 1944:
Arrives at Manila.

25 August 1944:
At 1650, KURAHASHI departs Manila for Singapore with destroyer FUJINAMI, kaibokan HIRADO, MIKURA, CD-11 and sub-chaser CH-28 escorting convoy HI-71 consisting of AZUSA, KYOKUTO, HOKKAI, ZUIHO, KYOKUHO and AWA MARUs. At 1845, KYOKUHO MARU develops engine trouble and drops behind escorted by FUJINAMI. Later, they catch up with the convoy.

1 September 1944:
At 1356, arrives at Singapore.

6 September 1944:
At 0630, KURAHASHI departs Singapore for Moji with Rear Admiral Kajioka Sadamichi's (39)(victor of Wake Island and former CO of KISO) 6th Escort Convoy Command’s kaibokan HIRADO (F), destroyer SHIKANAMI, MIKURA, CD-11 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-19 escorting fleet convoy HI-72 consisting of ASAMA, NANKAI, RAKUYO, ZUIHO, SHINCHO and KACHIDOKI MARUs (ex American PRESIDENT HARRISON).

11 September 1944:
S China Sea. 100 miles NE of the Paracel Islands. At 0910, convoy HI-72 is joined by unescorted convoy MAMO-03 consisting of armed merchant cruiser GOKOKU MARU, IJA landing craft depot ship KIBITSU MARU and ex-seaplane tender KAGU MARU.

12 September 1944:
S China Sea. E of Hainan, China. About 0200, HIRADO is torpedoed by Cdr Thomas B. Oakey’s (USNA ’34) USS GROWLER (SS-215), breaks in two and sinks at 17-54N, 114-59E. Cdr Segawa and 106 sailors are KIA. Rear Admiral Kajioka goes down with the ship. He is promoted Vice Admiral, posthumously.

At 0500, LtCdr (later Vice Admiral) Eli T. Reich’s (USNA ’35) USS SEALION (SS-315) torpedoes RAKUYO MARU, but she stays afloat for another 13 hours, sinking at 1820 that evening. She is carrying 1,318 Allied POWs, (601 British, 716 Australian and several US POWs), of whom 1,159 are lost. Reich also sinks NANKAI MARU.

At 0700, SHIKANAMI is torpedoed by GROWLER and sinks at 18-16 N, 114-40 E 240 miles S of Hong Kong. MIKURA rescues eight officers and 120 men. At 2254, LtCdr Paul E. Summers' (USNA ’36) USS PAMPANITO (SS-383) torpedoes and sinks KACHIDOKI MARU with 950 Allied POWs aboard. At 2337, she founders and 12 sailors and 476 passengers (including 431 POWs) are lost with her. USS PAMPANITO also sinks ZUIHO MARU with the loss of all on board and 8000 tons of oil. The Japanese rescue a few POWs from the two prison ships. The survivors are transferred to KIBITSU MARU and taken to Japan.

13 September 1944:
Arrives at Samah, Hainan Island.

15 September 1944:
Arrives at Yulin, Hainan. The convoy is reorganized and KURAHASHI is detached.

18 September 1944:
At 1040, KURAHASHI joins the escort of convoy HI-75 consisting of oilers NICHIEI, RYOEI, TOHO (1944 built), SERIA and MANEI MARUs, FUJISAN MARU (1944), KUROSHIO and TAIHO MARUs and passenger liner ASAMA MARU, that departed Takao, Formosa for Singapore on 14 September escorted by kaibokan KANJU, MANJU, MIYAKE and CD-28, torpedo boat HIYODORI and escort carrier SHINYO.

19 September 1944:
At 1500, AMATO MARU joins the convoy.

20 September 1944:
During the day, NICHIEI, KUROSHIO, TAIHO and FUJISAN MARUs and carrier SHINYO all suffer engine or rudder problems, but the convoy remains intact.

22 September 1944:
At 1300, HI-75 arrives at Singapore.

2 October 1944:
At 1700, KURAHASHI departs Singapore for Moji with escort carrier SHINYO and kaibokan MANJU, KANJU, DAITO, MIYAKE, CD- 9,CD-28 and torpedo boat HIYODORI escorting convoy HI-76 consisting of oilers NICHIEI, NICHINAN, RYOEI, FUJISAN, KUROSHIO, TARAKAN and TOHO MARUs, ex-seaplane tender KIMIKAWA MARU and cargo ship TEIHOKU MARU (ex French PERSEE).

8 October 1944:
South China Sea. At 0100, LtCdr Henry D. Sturr’s (USNA ’33) USS BECUNA (SS-319) attacks the convoy at 14-12N, 115-53E. Sturr fires four torpedoes and claims two hits on KIMIKAWA MARU. She is detached from the convoy and heads for Manila escorted by HIYODORI and CD-28.

13 October 1944:
At 0400, arrives at Manila.

E 16 October 1944:
Samah, Hainan Island. Convoy TAMA-28 joins convoy HI-76A. The new convoy consists of oilers NICHIEI, NICHINAN, RYOEI, FUJISAN (1944), KUROSHIO, TARAKAN and TOHO (1944) MARUs and cargo ship TEIHOKU MARU (ex French PERSEE) escorted by KURAHASHI, escort carrier SHINYO, kaibokan DAITO, KANJU, MANJU, MIYAKE, CD-28 and torpedo boat HIYODORI. At 0745, the convoy, delayed because of an enemy task force near Formosa, departs port.

17 October 1944:
Early in the morning, MANJU and MIYAKE are ordered to detach with RYOEI MARU and head for Mako.

20 October 1944:
NICHIEI MARU is detached from the convoy and heads for Coron Bay escorted by KURAHASHI and CD-25.

21 November 1944:
At 0645, convoy SHIMA-05 consisting of MANILA, TASMANIA MARUs, SHINSEI MARU No. 5 and tanker AYANAMI MARU and three unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan CD-31, patrol boat PB-104 and subchaser CH-56, auxiliary minesweeper Wa-10 and auxiliary patrol boat NITTO MARU No. 17 arrives at Miri from Singapore.

The three unidentified merchants ships, Wa-10 and NITTO MARU No. 17 are detached. KURAHASHI and kaibokan CD-32 join the escort.

24 November 1944:
Departs Miri at 1710.

25 November 1944:
At 0535, LtCdr John R. Madison's (USNA ’37) USS MINGO (SS-261) torpedoes MANILA MARU and gets three hits. Loaded with ammunition and gasoline, MANILA MARU explodes and sinks by the bow in four minutes at 05-42N, 113-15E taking down Captain Uike Matsuichi and 96 crewmen, 51 gunners and four passengers. Also lost are cargo of gasoline and 10 Daihatsu barges.

29 November 1944:
The remainder of SHIMA-05 arrives at Manila.

10 December 1944:
Reassigned to the Grand Escort Fleet's First Escort Fleet.

31 December 1944:
At 0820, KURAHASHI departs Moji for Singapore with kaibokan MIKURA and CD-13 and destroyers SHIGURE, HATAKAZE and DesDiv17’s HAMAKAZE and ISOKAZE escorting convoy HI-87 consisting of oilers TENEI, KAIHO, KUROSHIO, MATSUSHIMA, MITSUSHIMA, MIRI, MUNAKATA and SARAWAK MARUs, fleet oiler KAMOI and passenger-cargoman TATSUWA MARU. Light carrier RYUHO provides air cover.

7 January 1945:
East China Sea. The convoy is sighted by "Loughlin's Loopers" submarine wolf pack consisting of Cdr (later Rear Admiral/MOH) Eugene R. Fluckey's (USNA ’35) USS BARB (SS-220) and LtCdr Evan T. Shepard's (USNA ’35) USS PICUDA (SS-382), later joined by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles E. Loughlin's (USNA ’33) USS QUEENFISH (SS-393).

At 0905, in high seas, Shepard's USS PICUDA heavily damages MUNAKATA MARU in the bow. She is assisted by KURAHASHI then proceeds separately to Kirun (Keelung). The convoy anchors at Shinchiku roadstead, Formosa.

At 1300, the convoy is sighted by the wolfpack and tracked. RYUHO and SHIGURE are detached from the convoy and proceed to Kirun.

At 1830, in dense fog, the convoy anchors temporarily on the W Formosan coast. The ships then split up and enter Takao’s port at different times.

9 January 1945:
Vice Admiral (later Admiral) John S. McCain's (USNA ’06)(former CO of USS RANGER, CV-4) Task Force 38 aircraft attack shipping off Takao At 1200, 17 Grumman TBM "Avengers" and F6F "Hellcats" attack and sink KAIHO MARU. The ship was carrying 680 troops of whom 314 as well as six Gunners, four Watchmen and 14 of the crew are KIA. The aircraft also heavily damage the KUROSHIO MARU and damage escorts YASHIRO, MIYAKE and kaibokan CD-13.

10 January 1945:
At 1700, the reformed convoy departs Takao for Mako. It now consists of SARAWAK, MATSUSHIMA, MITSUSHIMA and HASHIDATE MARUs and KAMOI escorted by KURAHASHI with kaibokans KANJU, NOMI, SHINNAN, YASHIRO, MIYAKE, CD-13, CD-60 and CD-205 and destroyer SHIGURE that rejoins from Kirun. RYUHO and DesDiv 17’s HAMAKAZE and ISOKAZE detach from HI-87 and depart for Japan.

12 January 1945:
The convoy receives a radio report that Kirun is under air attack and the ships are ordered to head for Hong Kong, not Mako.

13 January 1945:
At 1100, convoy HI-87 enters Hong Kong.

15 January 1945:
At 0915, there is an air attack on Hong Kong. Over the next two days, all of HI-87's merchants except SARAWAK MARU suffer varying degrees of battle damage.

2 February 1945:
KURAHASHI departs Keelung with kaibokan SHINNAN, CD-22, CD-56 and subchaser CH-19 escorting convoy TAMO-40 consisting of MASASHIMA MARU and three unidentified merchant ships.

5 February 1945:
Reassigned to the First Coast Defense Group.

6 February 1945:
Arrives at the Ssu Chiao Shan anchorage.

8 February 1945:
Departs the Ssu Ciao Shan anchorage.

12 February 1945:
Arrives at Moji.

14 March 1945:
KURAHASHI departs Moji with kaibokan CD-60 and CD-205 escorting convoy MOTA-42 consisting of two unidentified merchant ships.

17 March 1945:
Anchors at Ta Changtu Shan, north of the Chusan Islands group.

20 March 1945:
Departs Ta Changtu Shan.

23 March 1945:
Arrives at Wenchow.

26 March 1945:
Departs Wenchow.

27 March 1945:
Arrives at Keelung.

31 March 1945:
KURAHASHI departs Keelung with kaibokan CD-60 and CD-205 escorting convoy TAMO-52 consisting of two unidentified merchant ships.

Early April 1945:
Arrives at Moji.

June 1945:
LtCdr Morinaga Takashi is appointed Commanding Officer.

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Surrenders to Allies.

30 November 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

December 1945:
Assigned to minesweeping duties with the Allied Occupation Forces.

March 1946:
Operating off Kikai Jima with kaibokan YASHIRO, CD-48, CD-49 and CD-77 together with US minesweepers USS SHOVELER (AM-382) and USS REDSTART (AM-378). When not minesweeping the ships were anchoring off Amami-Oshima.

14 September 1947:
KURAHASHI is ceded to the United Kingdom as a war reparation.

15 January 1948:
Nagoya. Completes scrapping.

Authors' Note:
[1] The unidentified ships may have been NOSHIRO, KINUGASA and TEIRITSU MARUs and tanker NICHINAN MARU No. 2.

Thanks for assistance go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro and Mr. Motoyuki Iwashige of Japan, M Willmann, and Mr. Gilbert Casse of France. Thanks also to Mr. Matthew Jones of Ohio for help in identifying COs.

Thanks also go to John Whitman for info on USN intercepts of IJN messages.

-Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

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