(Fujimi model company)

IJN Kaiyo: Tabular Record of Movement

© 2006-2007 Anthony Tully, Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall

Revision 2 -@July 2009 - Anthony Tully
Enhanced Edition: @ September 2015 - Anthony Tully

9 December 1938:
Nagasaki. Launched at Mitsubishi’s shipyard and named ARGENTINA MARU.

31 May 1939:
Completed as a 12,755-ton passenger liner for Mitsui's OSK (Osaka Shosen Kaisha) line.

9 December 1942:
OSK sells ARGENTINA MARU to the IJN for an undisclosed amount.

10 December 1942:
Nagasaki. Begins conversion at Mitsubishi’s shipyard to a light carrier. Her diesel engines are replaced by two sets of destroyer turbines.

15 November 1943:
Running trial and shake-down runs in Iyo Nada.(Portrait photograph taken today.) A Type 21 air-search radar is installed.

23 November 1943:
The conversion is officially completed. Renamed KAIYO ("Sea Hawk") and assigned directly to the Combined Fleet. Captain Takao Yoshimi (43) (former CO of AKITSUSHIMA) is Commanding Officer.

24 November 1943:
Departed Tokuyama and arrived at Kure same day.

3 December 1943:
Departed Kure probably on sea trials within the Inland Sea.

10 December 1943:
Arrived back at Kure. That same day, KAIYO is assigned to the Grand Escort Command, but is used for aircraft transport rather than escort duties.

16 December 1943:
Departed Kure.

18 December 1943:
Returns to Kure.

26 December 1943:
Arrived at Hashirajima.

28 December 1943:
Arrived back at Kure.

5 January 1944:
Departed Kure.

7 January 1944:
Arrived at Iwakuni. Probably takes on fuel.

8 January 1944:
Departed Iwakuni and later that day arrived at Nagasaki.

9 January 1944:
Departed Nagasaki and later that day arries Saeki.

10 January 1944:
Departed Saeki but is ordered to return and arrived back at Saeki later that day.

12 January 1944:
Departed Saeki for Singapore via Manila carrying aircraft for the 23rd Air Flotilla escorted by destroyers HIBIKI and INAZUMA.

13 January 1944:
Joins convoy HI-33 consisting of transport AOBASAN MARU and tankers YUHO, TARAKAN, ASASHIO and ASANAGI MARUs and an unidentified ship escorted by kaibokan ETOROFU, minelayer YAEYAMA and subchaser CH-36.

14 January 1944:
At 1930, arrived at Takao.

16 January 1944:
Arrived at Manila. Unloaded aircraft.

17 January 1944:
Departed Manila, but KAIYOdeveloped a steering problem and is forced to return to Manila later that day.

18 January 1944:
Departed Manila for Singapore with HIBIKI and INAZUMA.

21 January 1944:
Arrived at Singapore.

31 January 1944:
Departed Singapore - HIBIKI and INAZUMA still in company - in aircraft ferry role. Embarked are twenty-six Type 12 B6N2 "Tenzan" carrier torpedo bombers of the 551st Air Group from Sabang airfield. (It is worth noting that wings of these aircraft could fold at half-way point; allowing KAIYO to carry such a large number).

3 February 1944:
Arrived at Tarakan. Refuels.

4 February 1944:
Departed Tarakan.

8 February 1944:
Arrived at Palau; departed that same day for Truk still carrying aircraft for the 551st Air Group.

10 February 1944:
At about 2315 LtCdr Carter L. Bennett’s old USS PERMIT (SS-178) patrolling about 130 miles south of Truk makes radar contact 24,600 yds to southwest. Identifying the target as a carrier, PERMIT at 0057 11 February fires four Mark 14 torpedoes set at slow-speed for a long range shot of about 9,000 yards at KAIYO's starboard side. Three explosions are heard at 0105 and damage claimed, but KAIYO was not hit, and surprisingly, her screen did not counter-attack.

11 February 1944:
Arrived at Truk. (It is worth noting that 18 of the aircraft of 551st offloaded were lost in the TF 58 raid on Truk eight days later.) Later, departed for Kure with HIBIKI and INAZUMA.

13 February 1944:
Departed Truk.

15 February 1944:
Arrived at Saipan and departed later that day.

19 February 1944:
Arrived at Hiroshima Bay. HIBIKI and INAZUMA proceeded to Kure.

20 February 1944:
Arrived at Kure.

23 February 1944:
Departed Kure. Arrived at Innoshima that day for repairs at Hitachi Zosen's yard.

24 February 1944:
KAIYO entered drydock.

2 March 1944:
Repairs are completed. Departed Innoshima.

3 March 1944:
Arrived at Kure.

9 March 1944:
Departed Kure. Undertakes training exercises in the Saeki area.

16 March 1944:
Arrived back at Kure.

17 March 1944:
KAIYO is assigned to Rear Admiral Matsuyama Mitsuhara's First Surface Escort Division to service in TO Force Operation.

28 March 1944:
0800: departed Kure; arrived 1500 at Tokuyama.

29 March 1944:
Departed Tokuyama with CD No.9. This morning her air group of twelve B5N attack planes of the 931st Air Group flies out and lands aboard her. At 0800 arrived at Moji.

1 April 1944:
Cruised to Mutsure and departed from there with kaibokan ETOFORU (flagship), IKI, SHIMUSHU, CD-8, CD-9 and torpedo boat SAGI escorting convoy HI-57 consisting of about nine ships, among them the oilers ITSUKUSHIMA MARU (10,006 tons), OTOWASAN MARU (9,204 tons), RYOEI MARU (10,016 tons) and OMUROSAN MARU (9,204 tons), and troop transports SHINSHU MARU (8,170 tons) and MAYASAN MARU.

2 April 1944:
The convoy encounters severe weather and had to return temporarily to Moji.

3 April 1944:
At 0600, the same HI-57 convoy departed Moji once more.

5 April 1944:
Torpedo wakes reported by SHINSHU MARU and CD-8 depth-charged assisted by some of KAIYO's planes. Results unclear. (But the submarine, if any present, remains unknown and no record fits.)

7 April 1944:
At 1450, HI-57 arrived at Takao. CD-8 detached to join convoy SA-TA-17. KAIYO put into Saei, southern Formosa.

8 April 1944:
Arrived at Shajo; at 1000, departed and rejoined HI-57 which had set out from Takao.

12 April 1944:
At 1930 arrived at Camranh Bay.

13 April 1944:
At 1200, departed Camranh Bay.

15 April 1944:
In South China Sea a KAIYO plane reported a submarine and dropped two bombs. ETOROFU, IKI, SHIMUSHU and CD-9 all converge and drop twenty-eight depth charges. Results unknown.(However, no submarine appears to have been present.)

16 April 1944:
At 1240, HI-57 arrived intact at Singapore. The tankers proceeded onward to pick up fuel while KAIYO goes on stand-by to await the convoy orders for the return trip.

21 April 1944:
At 0700, departed Singapore with kaibokan ETOFORU, IKI, SHIMUSHU, CD-8 and CD-9 escorting the outbound convoy now designated HI-58 consisting of oilers ITSUKUSHIMA, RYOEI, OMUROSAN and OTOWASAN MARUs, troop transport SHINSHU MARU, and possibly some unknowns.

24 April:
1830: One of KAIYO's attack planes sights LtCdr Manning M. Kimmel's (son of former CINCPAC, ADM H. E. Kimmel) USS ROBALO (SS-273) on the surface about 15 miles behind the convoy. The plane drops two 250-kilogram bombs on ROBALO and calls for assistance. IKI and CD-9 arrive and drop depth charges. ROBALO is severely damaged, but escapes. [1]

25 April 1944:
Arrived at Camranh Bay.

29 April 1944:
KAIYO Arrived at Shajo, Formosa, while HI-58 lays over at Takao.

2 May 1944:
Arrived and anchored off Fukue.

3 May 1944:
ETOROFU detached and went into Sasebo. HI-58 arrived at Moji. Later that day, KAIYO arrived at Kure.

24 May 1944:
Departed Kure.

25 May 1944:
Arrived at Moji.

29 May 1944:
At 0600, departed Moji with light cruiser KASHII, kaibokan AWAJI, CHIBURI and CD-19, minelayer TSUBAME and subchaser CH-60 escorting convoy HI-65 consisting of oilers SHIRETOKO, ITSUKUSHIMA MARU (10,006 tons), OMUROSAN MARU (9,204 tons), ZUIHO (5,135 tons) and TOHO MARU (10,238 tons), cargo liners ARIMASAN MARU (8,697 tons), MANILA MARU (9,486 tons), KASHII MARU (8,407 tons) and TATSUWA MARU (6,332 tons) and troop transport SHINSHU MARU (8,170 tons)

2 June 1944:
Formosa Straits.
- 0240: AWAJI is torpedoed in the starboard side by LtCdr Albert L. Raborn's USS PICUDA (SS-382) and sinks near Yasho Island at 22-48N, 121-24E. The submarine had fired six bow torpedoes and the last two were at ARIMASAN MARU. The pair prematured just short of the freighter, but she had made an evasive swerve that caused her to collide with SHINSHU MARU's stern. This causes a depth charge explosion that kills about 70 men and causes rudder damage to SHINSHU MARU and starts a fire on ARIMASAN MARU's bow. KASHII takes SHINSHU MARU in tow. ARIMASAN MARU was lightly damaged by the prematures and collision and detached for Kirun with KASHII and SHINSHU MARU. [2]
- 0515 E of Formosa, near Yasho Island. The convoy is attacked unsuccessfully by LtCdr (later Captain) Enrique D. Haskins' new USS GUITARRO (SS-363) enroute from Pearl to Fremantle. One of his torpedoes makes a circular run and GUITARRO is forced deep. Later, GUITARRO avoids depth charge and aircraft attacks and escaped to Australia.
- 0604 At sunrise an aircraft just launched by KAIYO finds a surfaced submarine to port of the convoy at 800 meters and drops a marker as it dives. CD-19 drops fourty-four depth charges there. She then encounters a patch of AWAJI survivors, and rescues five, while CHIBURI recovers the rest. The two escorts are then independently directed to join KASHI.

4 June 1944:
Arrived at Takao, Formosa. KAIYO rejoins the convoy after a brief stop at Saei. Oiler JINEI MARU (10,500 tons) joins the convoy at sea.

8 June 1944:
Off Indochina. At 0906(H), Cdr (later ADM/CINCPAC) John S. McCain’s USS GUNNEL (SS-253) sights KAIYO at 11-59N, 112-29E on base course 205° T, speed 11.5 knots. GUNNEL’s high periscope observations disclose a small aircraft carrier and at least three unidentifed ships. GUNNEL’s SJ radar picks up an aircraft at 24 miles. The Officer of the Deck (OOD) dives prematurely. Contact with the convoy is lost and never regained.

12 June 1944:
At 1000 KAIYO arrived at Singapore, with the convoy following at 1350.

17 June 1944:
At 0400, departed Singapore with light cruiser KASHII and kaibokan CHIBURI, CD-7 and CD-11 escorting fast convoy HI-66 consisting of transport/cargo liners SANUKI MARU (7,158 tons), HOKKAI MARU (8,416 tons) and AWA MARU (11,249 tons)and tanker OMUROSAN MARU (9,204 tons.) The convoy hugs the continental coast avoiding deep water as much as possible.

26 June 1944:
At 1300, arrived at Moji.

27 June 1944:
Arrived at Kure.

2 July 1944:
Drydocked in Kure Naval Yard. Twenty Type 96 25-mm AA guns are fitted bringing her AA suite to a total of 44 barrels.

5 July 1944:

9 July 1944:
Departed Kure.

13 July 1944:
At 1600, KAIYO and escort carrier TAIYO each loaded with aircraft, departed Mutsure for Manila in convoy HI-69 escorted by escort carrier SHINYO, light cruiser KASHII and kaibokan CHIBURI, SADO and CD-7 and CD-17. The convoy under Rear Admiral Sato Tsutomu (former ComSubRon 1) of the Eighth Escort Convoy consists of KIMIKAWA MARU (6,863 tons), KOEI MARU (6,774 tons), AKI MARU (11,409 tons), ASAMA MARU (16,975 tons), SAIGON MARU (5,350 tons), HAKKO MARU (10,022 tons), sister oilers OTOWASAN and OMUROSAN MARUs (9,204 tons), KUROSHIO MARU (10,518 tons), HARIMA MARU (10,045 tons), SERIA MARU (10,238 tons), KACHIDOKI MARU (ex-PRESIDENT HARRISON - 10,509 tons), MANKO MARU (4,471 tons) and TENEI MARU (10,241 tons) and possibly MANJU MARU. [3]

18 July 1944:
Near Takao, Formosa. Just prior to 0600, LtCdr John J. Flachsenhar's USS ROCK (SS-274) fires four torpedoes at HARIMA MARU, but misses. Cdr Alan Banister's USS SAWFISH (USS 276) then fires nine torpedoes at the convoy. At 0850 HARIMA MARU is hit by a single torpedo in port side, but she is able to steam. At 1055, LtCdr Roger M. Keithy's USS TILEFISH (SS-307) torpedoed CD-17 in the port bow and heavily damaged her. The convoy continues to Manila without stopping at Takao as originally planned (less MANKO MARU that was detached the day before and damaged HARIMA MARU and CD-17 that put into Takao).

20 July 1944:
2100 HI-69 arrived at Manila. KAIYO and TAIYO are detached and begin unloading aircraft.

24 July 1944:
Captain (Rear Admiral, posthumously) Kitamura Masayuki (45) (former CO of NAGARA) assumes command.

25 July 1944:
At 0400, convoy MAMO-01 departed Manila for Moji via Takao. The convoy includes KAIYO and transports GOKOKU MARU (10,438 tons) and ASAMA MARUs escorted by destroyers AKIKAZE, HATSUSHIMO and TSUGA and minesweeper W-28. TAIYO also heads for Takao, attached to a similar 9 ship convoy, MATA-01. (Meanwhile, the part of HI-69 continuing to Singapore departed same day with CD No.13 and No.19).

27 July 1944:
At 1400, arrived at Takao.

28 July 1944:
Departed Takao. Covering HI-69 convoy on its return leg from Takao toward Mutsure.

1 August 1944:
Arrived at Kure. Undergoes repairs. Captain Arita Yuzo (48) assumes command.

4 August 1944:
Arrived at Moji to join a convoy, but suffers a machinery breakdown. Proceeded to Kure for repairs.

25 August 1944:
Arrived at Sasebo.

6 September 1944:
Entered drydock for repairs.

11 September 1944:
Left drydock. Continued lesser repair work.

29 September:
Cruises into Iwakuni Sea to test her engines.

2 October 1944:
Arrived at Saeki.

21 October 1944:
Departed Kure.

22 October 1944:
Arrived at Sasebo.

25 October 1944:
1000 departed Saesbo for Keelung, Formosa on a special transport of aviation materials with light carrier RYUHO and destroyers HINOKI, MOMI and MOMO. KAIO carries 12 transport aircraft.

27 October 1944:
1000: arrived at Keelung, Formosa with DesDiv 43.

30 October 1944:
Departed Keelung.

2 November 1944:
Arrived at Kure.

22 November 1944:
Departed Kure for Mutsure via Tokuyama. En-route, she lands aboard fourteen B5Ns of the 931st Air Group for anti-submarine operations.

23 November 1944:
Sailed into the Gunchu Sea; proceeded to Mutsure.

25 November 1944:
Arrived at Moji. At 2000, departed again with kaibokan CD-35, CD-64, CD-63 and CD-207 escorting HI-83 consisting of transport/cargo liners SANUKI MARU (7,158 tons), ORYOKU MARU (7,365 tons) and NISSHO MARU (6,520 tons) for Manila and tankers KYOKUUN MARU (10,045 tons), SEISHIN MARU (5,239 tons), HARIMA MARU (10,045 tons), TOA MARU (10,022 tons) and EISHO MARU (2,850 tons) for Singapore. (Another unidentified cargo ship en-route to Takao tags along till that port.)

26 November 1944:
Departed Sasebo.

30 November 1944:
At 0600, convoy HI-83 arrived at Takao. The Manila contingent of three transports and the cargo ship is detached from the convoy. KAIYO overnights at nearby Saei.

1 December 1944:
The convoy departed Takao joined by tanker MIRI MARU (10,564 tons) and patrol boat PB-102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224). KAIYO joins the convoy from Saei.

3 December 1944:
At 0630 SEISHIN MARU is hit by a torpedo. Then at 0607 CD No.64 is blown in two by a torpedo and sunk. (Possibly KAIYO increased speed to clear the area, for she arrived at Yulin, Hainan Island, China that same day while the convoy took two more days to arrive there. Or, there is an error in dates.)

8 December 1944:
Departed Yulin with the convoy.

9 December 1944:
HI-83 arrived at Quinon, China.

10 December 1944:
KAIYO is reassigned to the First Escort Fleet.

13 December 1944:
1845: HI-83 arrived at Singapore, and KAIYO sails up to Seletar Naval Base for maintenance work.

26 December 1944:
At 1158, KAIYO, kaibokan OKINAWA, CD-27 and CD-63, patrol boat PB-102 departed Singapore for Moji escorting convoy the returning HI-38 now redesignated HI-84 consisting of oilers TOA and MIRI MARUs returned with oil from Palembang, transports AWA MARU, AKASHI MARU, and AMATO MARU. AWA MARU carries about 525 British, American and Australian POWs and 476 passengers.

29 December 1944:
At 1157, HI-84 arrived at Cape St. Jacques (near Saigon) and departed at 1652 the same day.

30 December 1944:
South China Sea. HI-84 passes 2-YB (Second Striking Force) of Fifth Fleet Vice-Admiral Shima Kiyohide flying his flag in HYUGA, with CarDiv 4 (HYUGA, ISE), cruisers OYODO and ASHIGARA, DesDiv 2's ASASHIMO and DesDiv 18's KASUMI that are enroute south from Camranh Bay. Later that day, HI-84 arrived at Binhoang Bay, Indochina.

31 December 1944:
At 0745, HI-84 departed Binhoang Bay. At 1041 KAIYO is sighted and identified as an escort carrier at rear of column while LtCdr Otis R. Cole's USS DACE (SS-247) is tracking the convoy. Nine minutes later DACE quickly fired three Mrk 14 torpedoes at some 4,000 yards at KAIYO's port side, but gets no hits. There is no counterattack, as the convoy seems unaware of the attack. At 1804, HI-84 arrived at Quinhon, Indochina.

1 January 1945:
Arrived at Tourane.

2 January 1945:
Departed Tourane.

3 January 1945:
Off Hainan Island, MIRII MARU strikes a mine. With port engine room flooded, she has to be left behind limping. KAIYO and HI-84 proceeded to Hong Kong.

4 January 1945:
2300: KAIYO arrived at Hong Kong.

5 January 1945:
0200: KAIYO departed Hong Kong.

5 January 1945:
At 1840, convoy HI-84 arrived at the Hong Kong area and departed at 1937.

9 January 1945:
1120 Arrived at Chusan Retto (archipelago).

10 January 1945:
0720 departed Chusan Retto.

13 January 1945:
At 1725, arrived with HI-84 at Moji. Same day, KAIYO proceeded to Saeki.

14 January 1945:
Arrived at Kure. KAIYO is fully operational. Assigned with light carrier HOSHO, target ship SETTSU and old destroyer YUKAZE to target and aircraft training duties in the Inland Sea.

23 February 1945:
Arrived at Hiroshima Bay; departed.

24 February 1945:
Returned to Hiroshima Bay, then cruised to Kure for maintenance work and repairs.

15 March 1945:
Captain Kofuda Kiyoshi (49) assumes command.

19 March 1945:
Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Marc A. Mitscher's Task Force 58 carriers make the first carrier attack on the Kure Naval Arsenal. More than 240 aircraft (SB2C "Helldivers", F4U "Corsairs" and F6F "Hellcats") attack battleships HYUGA, ISE, YAMATO, HARUNA, carriers AMAGI, KATSURAGI, RYUHO, KAIYO and other ships. At the start of the raid KAIYO was moored in the outer harbor east of and on KATSURAGI's starboard beam. In the second wave at 0720 KAIYO was hit by a bomb that slashed through the flight deck on the port deck edge and exploded on hitting the water. At the same time near-misses to starboard breached the starboard engine room and No.14 fuel tank causing 500 tons of water to come in. Three sailors were killed, but in turn KAIYO shared credit with other ships in claiming three of her attackers shot down. By noon KAIYO is listing and flooding appears dangerous. Therefore at midday before the afternoon raid she is moved out of harbor and using just the port shaft shifts across to shallow water near Eta-Jima in the afternoon as a precaution.

21 March 1945:
KAIYO returns to Kure harbor for temporary repairs to outer hull and engines.

28 March 1945:
Reassigned from the First Escort Fleet to the Kure Naval District. Today, with battleship YAMATO and bulk of 2nd Fleet, departed Kure. Proceeded to Beppu Bay. Returned to Kure a week later.

13 April 1945:
KAIYO under camouflage at Hitonose, Eta-Jima Island near Kure.

20 April 1945:
Kure Naval Yard. Drydocked at No. 3 Dock. Camouflaged in green paint. That same day, KAIYO is "paid off" as a carrier, but "retains her steaming and gun crew for training purposes". She is assigned directly to the Combined Fleet, Fourth Reserve, as a target warship in Beppu Bay for exercises with special attack (suicide) weapons, including kaiten manned-torpedoes. Moves to Hinode (also Hitose), Beppu Bay.

28 April 1945:
Returns to Kure from Hinode for some more drydock work.

30 April 1945:
Entered drydock for complete repairs of March damage.

1 May 1945:
Captain Osuga Shuichi (51)(former CO of HOSHO) assumes command as an additional duty.

5 May 1945:
Major B-29 air raid on Kure Navy Yard. KAIYO is in drydock at the time, and engages with AA. No damage.

17 May 1945:
Left drydock at Kure, repairs completed.

20 May 1945:
Once more designated as a training carrier to serve in exercises for pilots out of Oita. At this time her compliment is 73 officers, and 806 men. departed Kure and later that day arrived at Beppu Wan. She operated from there to train attack plane pilots in landings and practice attacks as well as "special attack" planes. A vigorous daily training program ensues, with exercises in nearby Iyoa-nada, with KAIYO returning to Beppu by midnight each day.

28 May 1945:
Photographed at Beppu Bay.

May-July 1945:
Makes regular local sorties to train aviators out of Beppu Bay. She generally follows a elongated loop out to the eastward from Beppu Bay, departing and returning the same day. In June is engaged in exercises training "Tenzan" torpedo plane drops and Zeroes for kamikaze operations. Most unusual of all, the carriers also served as target for special attack kaiten "human torpedo" maneuvers.

18 July 1945:
1938 hours: While engaged in torpedo exercises with kamikaze planes and kaitens, KAIYO strikes a magnetic mine in Sada Straits, Fudai Bay, 13.5 miles NW of Sata Misaki Lighthouse, Kyushu. The damage is "extremely slight however and offers no hindrance to operations." KAIYO continues to operate out of Beppu Bay.

24 July 1945:
Massive carrier air strikes by U.S. Task Force 38 and British Task Force 57 on Inland Sea and Kure area. Between 1220 and 1310 KAIYO and YUKAZE are attacked off Beppu by five aircraft from USS ESSEX. (This strike of 16 VF launched at 1015 was actually after airfields, and armed only with 5-inch rockets. Five of them went after the carrier. Strike returned to ESSEX at 1455.) KAIYO and YUKAZE appear to have escaped being hit but CD-4 and CD-30 in the vicinity get small damage. Captain Osuga decided to leave Beppu area and moor off a small fishing port for the night in hopes of escaping easy detection by prowling planes expected the next day. KAIYO departed after the attack, heading for Muroura. However, before she can reach her destination, at 1830 in Kizuki Bay, KAIYO struck a magnetic mine and went dead in the water. The rudder machinery was damaged and the steam pipe of the port engine room broken. Flooding aft is severe and slowly gaining. At 1925 she reports is unnavigable and requests assistence. Destroyer YUKAZE which had departed on 23 July for exercises with Oita Air Base, joins the carrier late that evening. YUKAZE established a tow line, and at 2350 the tow got under way, departing Kizuki Bay back to Beppu Bay. [4]

25 July 1945:
0500 hours: Having just beaten off strafing by three F6Fs YUKAZE and KAIYO arrived off Hiji - since having difficulty stemming flooding aft KAIYO is brought close to Hinode shore, "Hiroshita sea coast" in Beppu Bay of Oita Prefecture. This is a popular beach just on the western outskirts of Beppu city. At dawn KAIYO is deliberately grounded while emergency pumping continues. Gradually, the flooding is reduced. However, since her fresh water condensors fail the crew has to have pure water brought daily from Beppu city by barge in order to keep the boilers working. The crew works to seal the leaks and pump out the ship. An hour later she is attacked by four F6Fs and receives two rocket hits, wounding two men.

28 July 1945:
KAIYO is attacked by carrier planes from USS ESSEX and SAN JACINTO. Sixteen VBF-83 of ESSEX attack, firing 54 rockets, claiming 18 hits. However only three hits are reported sustained. But one of them is severe enough: penetrating to and knocking out the switchboard and electricity for the generator room. KAIYO loses all power for lighting, ventilation, and most important, her pumps. Slow flooding resumes and KAIYO bottoms deeper aft but remains generally upright. The position remains Hiji harbor, Beppu Bay at 33-20N, 131-32E. However, losses are minimal with twenty men killed. Damage control teams continue to work, but without ventilation and lighting, the work is very difficult.

29 July 1945:
Hiji harbor, Beppu Bay. A medical doctor from shore inspects conditions in the engine room, and urges that the repair crews give up. Without ventilation and power, the conditions are very unhealthy. Captain Osuga concurs, and the salvage effort is abandoned. To fix the vessel more firmly in place and also to preserve them, the boilers are flooded with water and the engine machinery coated with oil. It is hoped this will preserve the ship until a full salvage effort can be made.

9 August 1945:
Beppu Bay.- 0930 KAIYO is attacked by twelve Fifth Air Force B-25s of the 38th Bomb Group led by Col. Edwin Hugh Hawes. After dropping two bombs on the "left side of the carrier" Col. Hawe's leading B-25 apparently catches a wing tip on KAIYO's camouflage tree limbs and netting, flips over and crashes in the bay. After this attack, the last of the caretaker crew maning AA guns leaves the ship.It seems clear these near-misses of exploding bombs did additional damage (See next entry)

10 August 1945:
At 0800 KAIYO begins listing increasingly to port, the side facing the shoreline. By 1246 all of the port side of the flight deck is under water. Captain Osuga orders the ship's flag transferred ashore, and the crew transferred to Yokosuka.[5]

2 September 1945:

20 November 1945:
Removed from the Navy List:

3 August 1946:
KAIYO's hulk is inspected and photographed in preparation for salvage and scrapping operations. At the time most equipment including radio masts are still in place. The carrier rests on the bottom with port list well down by the bow with anchor deck submerged, but flight deck still above water.

1 September 1946-30 January 1948:
Beppu. Scrapped by Nissan Salvage. The flight deck was dismantled and the boilers and heavy equipment were first lifted out of the hulk. The hull then was refloated and pushed closer to shore for final scrapping. This is the period of an often seen but sometimes confusing late 1947 photo of her hull apparently beached. KAIYO's remains yielded 5,937 tons of viable metal.

[1] [ROBALO's report says the position was 10-29'N, 109-26'E 60 miles from the coast. The second bomb from KAIYO's plane exploded close aboard to port when the sub had only reached 55 fee and caused considerable damage. The SJ radar and JP Sound gear was knocked out, periscopes damaged, conning tower hatch sprung, and hydraulic steering damaged among others. The submarine had in fact completely evaded the depth charge attack that followed not even reporting it; all the damage had been due to the aircraft's bomb. At 2013 (HOW-time/= 2113 Item time) ROBALO had surfaced. After temporary repairs, she aggressively remained on patrol.]

[2] Somes sources credit AWAJI's sinking to Haskins' GUITARRO (SS-363). This is likely incorrect. A closer look reveals the following. Shortly before 0245 2 June AWAJI reported an enemy sub detected, but then was torpedoed and sunk. At 0147 (How Time) 2 June while closing a convoy contact GUITARRO sighted a torpedo hit on a target by another sub. These leave little doubt that AWAJI was sunk by PICUDA. GUITARRO had closed, sighting a burning ship at 0302 (H-time). (This is probably ARIMASAN MARU with fire burning on forecastle.) She herself makes her attack at 0419 (H-time) with four torpedoes. Three hits were claimed with a tremendous explosion, but a torpedo made a circular run and forced the sub deep for half and hour. Coming back up to periscope depth at 0505 (H-time) all hands took turns watching this target sink in two sections. Then,the evening of the same day 2 June, at 2230 (H-time) GUITARRO claimed to have torpedoed and exploded a MINEKAZE-class DD. However, the target was apparently CD-19 which was missed by two torpedoes that exploded against the shoreline shortly before midnight. She dropped seventeen depth-charges, then at 0045 3 June resumed heading for Keelung to join KASHI.

[3] KAIYO carried 65 Mitsubishi A6M "Zeke" fighters, 55 Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" bombers and 10 transports of unknown type. This large number of aircraft suggests that most, if not all, were carried disassembled, probably in crates.

[4] This towing of KAIYO by destroyer YUKAZE incidentally, is the only Japanese carrier successfully towed to refuge by a destroyer. Japanese praised the action, for KAIYO was "ten times the size" of little YUKAZE, an elderly destroyer, at that. DesDiv 17's ISOKAZE and HAMAKAZE had between them taken torpedoed SHINANO in tow briefly, but had to abandon the attempt. Tully

[5] This bit of data from CNO damage summaries of intercepts post-war, provided courtesy of John Whitman, is important. Though little more than a fragment, it affirms that KAIYO remained manned till just after the Fifth Air Force's attack by B-25s. Indeed, it shows that the raid played a role in her final total loss. (Col. Hawes posthumously received the Distinguished Flying Cross.)

[6] Some postwar sources use the phrase "capsized and sunk" or just "capsized" for the state of KAIYO. This is technically incorrect. KAIYO never had a list greater than 20 degrees to port, even as a wreck to the time of refloating and salvage of the hull, and can be regarded as "bottomed while upright". It is worth noting that inspection photos of KAIYO bottomed show the flight deck well clear of the water but with a port list.

Thanks to Sander Kingsepp, Hiro Inoue, and Bill Somerville for key translations and John Whitman for radio intelligence data.

- Anthony Tully, Bob Hackett, and Peter Cundall

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Initial Posting: 5 October 2006
Revised: 7 May 2007
Revised: 11 July 2009.
Last: 9/12/2015 h2314