HINDUSTAN (later JINZAN MARU), prewar)

Tabular Record of Movement

© 2013-2017 Bob Hackett

Laid down at Short Brothers Ltd., Pallion (Sunderland), England as a 5,217-ton B-class standard cargo ship (WWI) for The Shipping Controller, London.

Launched and named WAR SEAGULL.

Sold to Hindustan Steam Shipping Co (Common Bros), Newcastle and renamed HINDUSTAN.

March 1919:

Sold to Kohoku Kisen K. K, Tokyo; renamed ZINZAN MARU.

4 March 1939:
Chartered to the Nippon Yusen Kaisha (NYK) Line. ZINZAN MARU departs Singapore for Bombay via Penang and Columbo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) with calls at Karachi and Kundala, India.

13 April 1939:
Chartered to the NYK Line. ZINZAN MARU departs Singapore for Shanghai, China and Moji, Kobe, Osaka and Yokohama.

16 July 1940:
Chartered to the NYK Line. ZINZAN MARU departs Singapore for Moji, Kobe, Osaka and Yokohama.

E 1941:

15 October 1941:
Requisitioned by the Imperial Army (IJA) and converted to a troop transport. Assigned Army No. 644.

17 December 1941: Operation "M" (M Sakusen) -The Invasion of the Northern Philippines:
At 0900, JINZAN MARU departs Kirun, Formosa (Keelung, Tawan) for Lingayen Gulf, Philippines in Rear Admiral (later Vice Admiral) Rear Admiral Hirose Sueto (39)(former CO of AOBA) 3rd Lingayen Invasion Unit’s 9th Transport Group (6 ships), with 15 other IJA transports escorted by destroyer YAMAGUMO and minelayer WAKATAKA two armed merchants and smaller ships.

The Japanese main invasion at Lingayen Gulf consists of three transport echelons. The first is composed of 27 transports from Takao under Rear Admiral Hara Kensaburo, the second of 28 transports under Rear Admiral Nishimura and the third of 21 transports from Keelung under Rear Admiral Hirose Sueto. This force of 76 transports carries the main part of LtGen Homma Masaharu's 80,000-man 14th Army.

24 December 1941:
Lingayen Gulf. Between 0110 and 0430, the Lingayen Invasion Convoy lands troops at Lingayen.

13 May 1942:
Released by the Imperial Army back to her owners.

27 March 1943:
JINZAN MARU departs Saeki in Military Movement No. 8’s convoy “J2” also consisting of KACHOSAN, KOSO, SHICHISEI, and UGO MARUs escorted by minelayer NASAMI, patrol boat PB-31 and auxiliary minesweeper TAKUNAN MARU No. 3.

E 28 March 1943:
The escorts are detached at 29N.

7 September 1943:
At 1400, JINZAN MARU departs Saigon for Yulin, Hainan Island, China in convoy No. 424 also consisting of ANKO (ex-Chinese AN SHING), BELGIUM, CHINA, CHIYODA, FUKUJU, KAIKO, KENSEI (ex-British HINSANG), MIYO, TOSEI and TEIRYU (ex-German AUGSBURG) MARUs escorted by patrol boat PB-2 and auxiliary gunboat HUASHAN (KAZAN) MARU.

10 September 1943:
JINZAN MARU departs Yulin for Mako, Pescadore Islands in convoy No. 424 also consisting of IJA transports ANKO, BELGIUM, BIYO, CHINA, FUKUJU, KAIKO, KENSEI, TEIRYU and TOSEI MARUs and IJA tanker CHIYODA MARU escorted by patrol boat PB-2 and auxiliary gunboat HUASHAN MARU.

14 September 1943:
At 0800, the convoy arrives at Mako less ANKO, KAIKO, TEIRYU and TOSEI MARUs detached earlier.

19 September 1943:
At 0950, convoy No. 205 departs Mako for Moji consisting of CHINA, DENMARK, FUKUJU, HOKUAN, KYOKKO, NICHIEI, SEIZAN and TEIKOMARUs escorted by patrol boat PB-2 and auxiliary TOYO MARU No. 3.

20 September 1943:

24 September 1943:
At 1600, the convoy arrives at Moji, less HOKUAN MARU detached earlier.

24 September 1943:
Requisitioned by the Imperial Army again and reconverted to a troop transport.

18 October 1943:
At 1420, JINZAN MARU departs Moji for Takao in convoy No. 107 also consisting of HOKOKU, KENSEI, KOHOKU, MANTAI, MURORAN, NICHINAN, NITTATSU and SHOEI MARUs and OGURA MARU No. 3 and SHINSEI MARU No. 1 and tanker SAN PEDRO MARU escorted by patrol boat PB-36.

24 October 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

15 April 1944:
At 0600, JINZAN MARU departs Tokyo for Palau in convoy "Higashi-Matsu No. 6" also consisting of AWA, AWAJI, BATAVIA, HAKUBA, HOKUSHIN, KATSUKAWA, and TAKAOKA MARUs bound for Saipan, CHOAN MARU No. 2 and MIKAGE MARU No. 1 bound for Truk, JOKUJA and BISAN MARUs bound for Palau, KAMISHIMA and SHOZAN MARUs bound for Woleai, INARI and TONEGAWA MARUs bound for Guam and TATSUAKI and TAMAHOKO MARUs bound for Chichi-Jima escorted by destroyers HOKAZE, YUNAGI, UZUKI, kaibokan MIYAKE and CD-6, minelayers SARUSHIMA, KYOSAI and YURISHIMA, minesweepers W-28 and W-20 and subchasers CH-10 and CH-12.

E May 1944:
Arrives at Palau.

18 May 1944:
At 0500, JINZAN MARU departs Palau for Saipan in a convoy also consisting of ASAKA and TENRYUGAWA MARUs escorted by kaibokan CD-12, auxiliary minesweeper FUMI MARU No. 2, auxiliary subchaser CHa-62 and auxiliary SHOHO MARU.

19 May 1944 :
At 1416, BOKUYO (MUTSUYO) MARU and auxiliary subchaser URUPPU MARU join the convoy at 09-43N, 137-14E.

20 May 1944:
At 1750, auxiliary subchaser CHa-62 is detached from the convoy.

21 May 1944:
At 0925, LtCdr Vernon C. Turner's (USNA ’33) USS BILLFISH (SS-286) torpedoes BOKUYO (MUTSUYO) MARU at 13-44N, 140-46E. Later, TENRYUGAWA MARU takes BOKUYO MARU in tow covered by CD-12.

24 May 1944:
The rest of the convoy arrives at Saipan. Later, the other ships reach Saipan on 27 May.

31 May 1944:
At 0600, JINZAN MARU departs Saipan for Yokosuka in convoy No. 4530 also consisting of CHIYO, EIKO, HAKUSAN, KAIKO, NATSUKAWA, SHUNSEN and MARUs and UNYO MARU No. escorted by destroyer HATAKAZE, kaibokan CD-12, minelayer SARUSHIMA, minesweeper W-20, auxiliary minesweeper FUMI MARU No. 2 and auxiliary store ship TAKUNAN MARU.

2 June 1944:
250 miles W of Uracas Island. At 2207, CHIYO MARU is attacked by LtCdr Edward N. Blakely’s (USNA ’34) USS SHARK (SS-314) and hit by two torpedoes port side under the rear of the bridge. About ten minutes later, CHIYO MARU sinks at 21-00N 140-30E. 97 of 143 passengers and five crewmen are KIA. CD-12 and the other escorts counter-attack and drop 39 depth-charges without result.

4 June 1944:
317 miles WSW of Iwo-Jima. At 0405, HAKUSAN MARU is attacked by LtCdr John D. Crowley’s (USNA ’34) USS FLIER (SS-250) and hit port side by two of three torpedoes he fires. At 0415, HAKUSAN MARU sinks at 22-37N 136-50E. 23 crewmen, nine gunners, 16 of 71 troops and 277 of 375 passengers (mostly women and children) are KIA. CD-12 and the other escorts counter-attack and drop 34 depth-charges without result.

8 June 1944:
At 0800, the remainder of the convoy arrives at Yokosuka.

6 July 1944:
At 1245, JINZAN MARU departs Miike, Kyushu for Takao, Formosa in convoy MOMA-02 also consisting of HIZAN (HIYAMA), KOKKA, RYOFU, SEATTLE, SHOZAN, TOKUSHIMA and YASUKUNI MARUs escorted by destroyer HATSUSHIMO, kaibokan CD-1 and CD-22 and minesweeper W-34.

JINZAN MARU is carrying 910 men of the 18th and 19th Sea Raiding Battalions and about 200 crated plywood “Maru-ni” suicide explosive motor boats (EMB).

12 July 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

14 July 1944:
At 1900, JINZAN MARU departs Takao for Manila convoy TAMA-21C also consisting of HIZAN (HIYAMA), KOKKA, MANTAI, MITSUKI, SEATTLE, SHOKEI, TENSHIN, SAINEI, SHOZAN, TOKUSHIMA, YAMATAMA and YASUKUNI MARUs and tankers AYAGIRI, AYAZONO, MITSU and SHONAN, MARUs and three unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan KUSAGAKI, CD-1, CD-22, minelayers MAESHIMA and ENTO and minesweeper W-34.

16 July 1944:
At 0946, LtCdr Harold E. Ruble's (USNA ’33) USS PIRANHA (SS-389) torpedoes and sinks SEATTLE MARU at 19-17N, 120-15E. The ship was carrying 4,285 IJNAF personnel. 45 crewmen, 25 gunners and 296 passengers and troops are KIA. HIYAMA and SHOZAN MARUs rescue all but 286 of the airmen.

Over the next six hours, Captain William V. O'Regan’s (USNA ’23) wolf pack consisting of LtCdr Duncan C. MacMillian's (USNA ’26) USS THRESHER (SS-200), LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Norvell G. Ward's (USNA ’35) USS GUARDFISH (SS-217) and Ruble's PIRANHA closes in and decimates the convoy. At 2300, THRESHER torpedoes and sinks SAINEI MARU at 18-53N, 119-32E. 21 troops and passengers and three crewmen are KIA.

At 2350, Ward's GUARDFISH torpedoes and sinks JINZAN MARU at 19-17N 120.15E. 51 men are KIA - 38 troops, one passenger, seven gunners, two watchmen and three crewmen. Two minutes later, Ward torpedoes and sinks MANTAI MARU. 72 military and 43 crewmen are KIA.

Author’s Note:
Also known as JINZAN MARU and JINSAN MARU.

Thanks go to Erich Muehlthaler of Germany and to the late John Whitman of Virginia.

Bob Hackett

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