HAKUSA at Shanghai in 1937

IJN Hydrographic Survey Ship HAKUSA:
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2010-2016 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall
Revision 1

W Hartlepool, England. Laid down at the William Gray shipyard as a 3,810-ton cargo ship for F. C. Svorono & amp; di Pollone.

14 April 1914:
Launched and named DRUZHBA.

June 1914:
Completed. Registered in Russia.

Acquired by Anglo-Grecian Steam Trading Co., Ltd. and renamed KODRUS. Operated by C. Doresa & amp; Co.

Acquired by Sutton Shipping Co. Ltd. and renamed ULLESMERE. Operated by E. M. Trattles.

11 December 1931:
Acquired by the Chinese Government and renamed CHI FU HSING. Placed in service as a patrol boat.

7 July 1937: The Marco Polo Bridge (First "China") Incident:
Lugouqiao. Japanese troops on night maneuvers at the bridge fire blank cartridges. Chinese troops fire back, but do not cause injuries. The Japanese discover a soldier missing and assume the Chinese captured him. They demand entry to a suburb of Beijing to look for the soldier. The Chinese refuse. The Japanese shell the city. An undeclared war on China begins.

November 1937:
At Tsuinan (Cuinan). Captured by the Japanese. Renamed HAKUSA.

28 January 1938:
Yokohama. Undergoes conversion to a surveying ship at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ shipyard.

20 February 1938:
Registered in the Yokosuka Naval district as an auxiliary surveying ship. Captain Imamura Yukihiko (42) is appointed CO.

4 May 1938:
Departs Yokosuka for Northern China.

22 September 1938:
Departs Sasebo.

10 June-20 August 1939:
Yangtze River. HAKUSA investigates the depth of water of the river’s northern tributary and establishes a buoy route.

15 November 1939:
Captain Takahashi Tasuku (43) is appointed CO.

31 March 1940:
Departs Sasebo for Northern China.

25 April 1940:
Arrives at Dairen, Manchuria. Conducts surveys along the Manchurian coast.

1 May 1940:
Departs Dairen and conducts surveys along the Manchurian coast.

22 May 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun (Port Arthur then called Lushun).

28 May 1940:
Departs Ryojun for northern China area.

22 June 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun.

30 June 1940:
Departs Ryojun for northern China area.

19 July 1940:
Arrives at Dairen.

25 July 1940:
Departs Dairen for Northern China. Conducts surveys along the Northern Chinese coast.

7 August 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun and departs later that day to continue work.

9 August 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun.

19 August 1940:
Departs Ryojun for north China coast.

12 September 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun.

20 September 1940:
Departs Ryojun for north China coast.

4 October 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun.

10 October 1940:
Departs Ryojun for north China coast.

18 October 1940:
Arrives Dairen.

21 October 1940:
Departs Dairen for north China area.

28 October 1940:
Arrives at Ryojun.

13 November 1940:
Departs Ryojun for north China/Chosen (Korea) area.

18 November 1940:
Arrives at Sasebo.

November 1941:
Assigned to China Area Fleet.

28 November 1941:
Departs Sasebo for central China coast area.

December 1941:
Operating out of Sasebo, HAKUSA performs hydrographic survey measurementa along the Chinese coast.

14 December 1941:
Departs Shanghai.

30 December 1941:
Arrives at Chinkai (Chinhae).

Operating out of Shanghai, HAKUSA makes hydrographic surveys along the Chinese coast.

2 January 1942:
Departs Chinkai.

8 January 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

24 January 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

15 February 1942:
At 1130 arrives at Shanghai.

24 February 1942:
At 1030 departs Shanghai.

1 March 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

5 March 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

24 March 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

31 March 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

24 April 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

23 May 1942:
Departs Shanghai and arrives at Chinko (Chinkiang).

24 May 1942:
Departs Chinko and returns to Shanghai.

27 May 1942:
Departs Woosung and later that day arrives at Middle Ground (Yangtse River estuary).

28 May 1942:
Departs Middle Ground.

31 May 1942:
Arrives at Yuet Ching Wan (Bay).

1 June 1942:
Departs Yuet Ching Wan.

3 June 1942:
Arrives at Shen Chia.

5 June 1942:
Arrives at Woosung.

6 June 1942:
Departs Woosung.

22 June 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

2 July 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

11 July 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

17 July 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

30 July 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

31 July 1942:
Departs Shanghai for central China coast. At an unknown date returns to Shanghai.

28 August 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

23 September 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

9 October 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

10 October 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

14 November 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

23 November 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

1 December 1942:
Departs Kure in convoy No. 407.

26 December 1942:
Arrives at Shanghai.

31 December 1942:
Departs Shanghai.

1 January 1943:
Arrives Nantien Wan (Bay).

12 January 1943:
Departs Nantien Wan.

15 January 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

1 February 1943:
Cdr Hiraoka Yoshikata (47) is appointed CO.

12 February 1943:
Departs Shanghai.

14 March 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

21 March 1943:
Departs Shanghai.

23 April 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

7 May 1943:
Departs Shanghai.

19 June 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

26 June 1943:
Departs Shanghai.

3 August 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

16 August 1943:
Departs Shanghai.

18 September 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

25 September 1943:
Departs Shanghai. Drydocked probably at Kiangnan.

20 October 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

24 October 1943:
Departs Shanghai in convoy Mo-402 also consisting of one unidentified merchant ship escorted by patrol boat PB-38.

27 October 1943:
Arrives at Sasebo.

29 October 1943:
Departs Sasebo and arrives at Wakamatsu.

1 November 1943:
Cdr Hiraoka is promoted Captain.

2 November 1943:
Departs Wakamatsu and later that day arrives at Misumi.

9 November 1943:
Departs Misumi.

11 November 1943:
Arrives at Imari Wan.

14 November 1943:
At 0000 departs Imari Wan in convoy Shi-306 also consisting of NARUO, USSURI, USA, SHOGEN and SHINJU MARUs escorted by submarine chaser KAII (ex Chinese HAI WEI).

17 November 1943:
Arrives at Shanghai.

4 December 1943:
At 0830, departs Shanghai and at 1030 arrives off Woosung.

5 December 1943:
Departs Woosung in convoy MO-407 consisting of SHINWA, DAITO MARUs and two unidentified merchant ships presumably escorted by HAKUSA and possibly other warships.

7 December 1943:
At 2205, arrives Karatsu Wan (Bay). Off Komun To SHINWA MARU and DAITO MARU fell out of convoy.

8 December 1943:
At 0555, departs Karatsu Wan and at 1610 anchors outside Wakamatsu Port.

9 December 1943:
At 1215, enters Wakamatsu Port.

15 December 1943:
At 0735, departs Wakamatsu and after waiting outside port sails to Hirado, arriving later that day at 2035.

16 December 1943:
At 0730, departs from off Hirado arriving at Sasebo at 1440. 181 passengers are embarked while at Sasebo.

28 December 1943:
At 0735, departs Sasebo and at 1605 arrives off Imari Wan.

31 December 1943:
Joins convoy SHI-111 and at 0630 departs Imari Wan.

3 January 1944:
At 1710, anchors off Woosung anchorage next to Chiku Chiao (today Jigu Jiao).

4 January 1944:
At 0755, departs Woosung anchorage and at 1020 arrives at Shanghai.

9 January 1944:
Collides with stern of KITSURIN MARU and vessel’s bow damaged. Remains at Shanghai the rest of the month.

2 February 1944:
At 0905, departs Shanghai and at 1830, anchors at Tangnao Shan anchorage.

3 February 1944:
At 0750, departs Tangnao Shan anchorage but because of dense fog, at 0955, anchors north of Yuhsingnao.

4 February 1944:
At 0900, departs Yuhsingnao and at 1430 arrives at Tinghai. Undertakes surveying duties.

7 February 1944:
At 1055, departs Tinghai and at 1220 arrives at Tsetsu Shuitao (Strait). Auxiliary survey ship EBISU MARU has run aground there and HAKUSA assists in refloating the damaged ship.

10 February 1944:
At 0805, departs Tsetsu Shuitao and at 0945 anchors on the north side of Hsi Hou Men. Takes on stores from BANSHU MARU No. 21.

12 February 1944:
At 1415, departs north side Hsi Hou Men and at 1635 returns to Tsetsu Shuitao (Strait) arriving later that day.

17 February 1944:
At 0955, departs Tsetsu Shuitao and at 1140 anchors on thre north side of Hsi Hou Men.

18 February 1944:
At 1305, departs north side Hsi Hou Men and at 1420 returns to Tsetsu Shuitao (Strait) arriving later that day.

19 February 1944:
At 1010, takes on stores from BANSHU MARU No. 21. At 1300 Departs Tsetsu Shuitao (Strait) arriving at Tinghai later that day at 1405.

22 February 1944:
At 1155, departs Tinghai and at 1320 arrives back at Tsetsu Shuitao.

26 February 1944:
At 0920, takes on stores from SENSHO MARU.

28 February 1944:
At 0830, departs Tsetsu Shuitao and at 1100 arrives at Luotou Shuitao (Strait).

2 March 1944:
At 0935, departs Luotou Shuitao and at 1145 arrives at Tsetsu Shuitao.

3 March 1944:
At 1330, departs Tsetsu Shuitao (Strait) arriving at Tinghai later that day at 1445.

4 March 1944:
At 1520, takes on stores from BANSHU MARU No. 21.

6 March 1944:
At 1200, departs Tinghai and at 1325 arrives back at Tsetsu Shuitao.

8 March 1944:
At 1150, takes on stores from BANSHU MARU No. 21.

11 March 1944:
At 1121, departs Tsetsu Shuitao to a nearby unspecified anchorage.(“Ta-tsui Shan”). Arrives there at 1720.

12 March 1944:
At 0720, departs anchorage and later that day at 1450 arrives at Shanghai.

14 March 1944:
Commences surveying operations.

16 March 1944:
Concludes surveying operations.

17 March 1944:
Takes on stores.

20 March 1944:
At 1225, departs Shanghai and at 1430 arrives Woosung. Joins convoy MO-003 and departs Woosung at 1600.

23 March 1944:
At 2315, arrives off Hirado.

24 March 1944:
At 0650, departs from off Hirado and at 1515 arrives at Sasebo.

31 March 1944:
At 1100, departs Sasebo and at 2030 anchors in Yushima Seto.

1 April 1944:
At 0740, departs Yushima Seto and at 0900 arrives at Misumi.

11 April 1944:
At 0850, departs Misumi and at 1900 arrives at Sasebo.

12 April 1944:
At 0955, departs Sasebo and at 1715 anchors off Hirado.

13 April 1944:
At 0600, departs from Hirado area.

16 April 1944:
At 1855, arrives at Shanghai.

1 May 1944:
HAKUSA is re-classified as special repair ship. Reassigned directly to Combined Fleet. During May armament is increased by one 7.7mm and two 13.2mm mg guns.

6 May 1944:
At 1540, departs Shanghai and, at 1745, anchors off Woosung.

7 May 1944:
At 0655, departs Woosung in dense fog.

9 May 1944:
At 1315 anchors off the Hsusha Island Group (now Xusha Liehdao).

10 May 1944:
Departs Hsusha Liehtao and later that day at 1745 anchors off Changson Do before departing at 2350.

12 May 1944:
At 0650, anchors off Wakamatsu before entering port at 0920.

19 May 1944:
At 1500, departs Wakamatsu.

20 May 1944:
At 1000, arrives at Kure.

22 May 1944:
At 1300, enters Kure Naval dockyard for repairs.

29 May 1944:
At 0830, undocks and moves to Ko Anchorage in Kure, arriving at 0900.

17 June 1944:
At 1100, docked again this time in No. 4 drydock.

24 June 1944:
At 1010, undocked and moves to A anchorage, arriving at 1100.

28 June 1944:
At 0800, moves from A anchorage to No. 10 buoy, Kure.

3 July 1944:
At 1500, moves from No.10 buoy to No. 4 buoy, Kure.

7 July 1944:
At 1700, moves from No. 4 buoy to nearby Chokojima.

10 July 1944:
At 0830, moves from Chokojima to No. 13 buoy, Kure.

15 July 1944:
At 1330, moves from No. 13 buoy to Ko anchorage, Kure.

11 August 1944:
At 0300, moves from Ko anchorage to No. 4 Pontoon, Kure, arriving at 0325.

15 August 1944:
Recalled Captain-Ret. Kagayama Hokao (45) is appointed CO.

14 September 1944:
Moves from No. 4 Pontoon to No. 12 buoy, Kure.

15 September 1944:
Moves from No. 12 buoy to No. 13 buoy, Kure.

25 September 1944:
An air-raid warning, but no attack.

18 October 1944:
At 0700, HAKUSA departs Imari Bay near Sasebo via Cape St. Jacques, Indo-China for Miri in convoy MI-23 consisting of EBARA, MUNEKATA, HIKACHI (NISSHO), MATSUMOTO, KOSHIN, EININ, RITSUEI, YAMASONO, ENREKI, SHOEI, HIROTA, UNSEN, YOKAI and SHIROTAE MARUs, survey ship and YUZAN MARU No. 2 escorted by kaibokan CD-14, CD-20 CD-34, CD-39 and CD-46 and patrol boats PB-102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224) and PB-38.

19 October 1944:
Off Sasebo. At 1600, CD-34 detects an unknown submarine. CD-38 attacks and drops about 30 depth charges. A friendly aircraft collaborates with the kaibokan. A kill is confirmed by a heavy-oil slick and many interior ship fittings found floating on the sea.

20 October 1944:
Anchors in Raro Bay, Chosen (Korea).

22 October 1944:
At the Shushan anchorage, E of Shanghai.

24 October 1944:
75 miles ENE of Foochow, China. At 1000, HIROTA, UNSEN and YOKAI MARUs are detached for Takao escorted by PB-103 and PB-38.

25 October 1944:
Formosa Strait. At 0208, Cdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Richard H. O'Kane's (USNA ’34)USS TANG (SS-306), running on the surface, torpedoes and sinks EBARA MARU at 25-04N, 119-35E with the loss of 11 crewmen. One of the torpedoes fired at EBARA MARU strikes onrushing MATSUMOTO MARU and she comes to a halt (No casualties are sustained). Machine guns on her bridge open fire and drive the submarine under where the water depth is a mere 131 feet. CD-34 detects an uncertain underwater contact and drops two depth charges.

Aboard HAKUSA, the Convoy commodore orders the convoy dissolved. CD-34 is tasked with the rescue of survivors and conducting anti-submarine operations in the area. The kaibokan picks up another target 3,000 meters away from the location of the last attack, depth 30 meters. The CO decides not to pursue it, considering that the reflection might have bounced back from one of the sinking ships. One cutter and a 6-meter motor boat are lowered to pick up the survivors of MATSUMOTO and EBARA MARUs.

USS TANG commences another attack, but one of her remaining torpedoes commences a circular run. The lookouts on CD-34 first spot the torpedo and then witness an explosion, which sinks the submarine.

Nine American submariners are found drifting on the surface including Captain O'Kane. CD-34 rescues the survivors and later claims to have sunk TANG, but, in fact, the submarine was sunk by one TANG’s defective Mark-18 torpedoes. CD-34 also rescues several survivors of EBARA MARU. At 2000, the ships arrive at Chuanchow Bay where MATSUMOTO MARU is successfully grounded. However, she lists heavily.

26 October 1944:
MATSUMOTO MARU capsizes and becomes a total loss. At 0600, the convoy anchors outside Amoy Harbor, and departs the same day at 1800.

27 October 1944:
At 0800, MI-23 arrives at Mako. Special repair ship HAKUSA (ex-Chinese CHI FU HSING) is detached from MI-23. MIYAKE and KASADO receive ordesr to escort HAKUSA to Singapore.

29 October 1944:
At 0700, the convoy departs Amoy for Cape St. Jacques, Indochina.

30-31 October 1944:
Aircraft attack the convoy, but no damage is sustained.

4 November 1944:
At 1803, arrives at Cape St. Jacques.

9 November 1944:
At 0235, departs Cape St. Jacques.

10 November 1944:
CD-34 is detached and joins convoy MI-20 consisting of DAISHU, SHUNTEN and SAN DIEGO MARUs escorted by destroyer SHIOKAZE, torpedo boat HIYODORI and subchaser CH-21.

12 November 1944:
Arrives at Singapore.

20 February 1945:
Reassigned to 10th Area Fleet, Combined Fleet.

10 March 1945:
Reassigned to 10th Area Fleet, Supply Ministry.

22 March 1945:
Recalled Captain-Ret Abe Koun (41) (former ComSubChasDiv is appointed CO.

28 April 1945:
At Seletar Naval Base, Singapore.

29 April 1945:
Departs Seletar Naval Base and later that day arrives at the Bangka Strait.

30 April 1945:
Departs the Bangka Straits for Jakarta, Java.

1 May 1945:
Arrives at Jakarta.

30 May 1945:
Departs Jakarta for Saigon, Indochina.

8 June 1945:
Off Cape Camau, southern Indochina. LtCdr Albert L. Becker’s (USNA ’34) USS COBIA (SS-245) torpedoes and sinks HAKUSA at 08-56N, 105-37E with unknown casualties. USS COBIA also sinks an unidentified ship (incorrectly identified by ULTRA as small tanker NANSHIN MARU No. 22) at about the time.

Captain Abe is KIA. He is promoted Rear Admiral, posthumously.

3 May 1947:
Removed from the Navy List.

Authors' Note:
Thanks to Gilbert Casse of France. Thanks also go to Erich Muethlthaler of Germany.

-Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

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