(Sister YOSHIDA MARU No. 1, prewar)

Tabular Record of Movement

© 2012-2016 Bob Hackett
Revision 4

29 October 1919:
Tsurumi. Laid down at Asano Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. as a 5,811-ton passenger-cargo ship for Kokusai Kisen, K. K.

16 April 1920:
Launched and named CLYDE MARU.

18 May 1920:

28 November 1934:
Sold to Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha, (ISK) Line of Fuchu.

13 September 1935:
Sold to Nanyo Kaiun, K. K. (Southern Ocean Maritime) of Fuchu.

22 November 1941:
Requisitioned by the Imperial Army (IJA). Alloted IJA No. 554.

10 December 1941: Operation "G" (G Sakusen) - The Seizure of Guam:
Rear Admiral Kasuga Atsushi's (37)(former CO of CHOKAI) 5th Base Force's Invasion Force consisting of transports CLYDE, CHERIBON, CHINA, YOKOHAMA, DAIFUKU, KOGYOKU, VENICE, NICHIMEI, MATSUE and MOJI MARUs land MajGen Horii Tomitaro’s 55th Infantry Corps 55th Division’s Headquarters, 3d Company, 55th Cavalry, 55th Division plus an anti-tank platoon, 144th Infantry Regiment of 2,673 men, 144th Infantry Artillery Unit, 1st Battalion, 55th Mountain Artillery Regiment with twelve 75mm mountain guns, 1st Company, 55th Engineer Regiment’s 3rd Company (less one platoon) and 10th Independent Engineer Regiment.

The Invasion Force is covered by minelayer TSUGARU (F), destroyer OBORO, DesDiv 23, GunbtDiv 7, SubChasDivs 59 and 60 and MineDiv 15 and auxiliary seaplane tender KIYOKAWA MARU. The Invasion Force also lands naval units of the 5th Defense Unit Detachment 15th Naval Base Headquarters and 15th Communications Unit. Japanese troops quickly overrun Guam's few United States Marine Corps defenders.

22/23 January 1942: - Operation "R" (R Sakusen)- The Invasions of Rabaul and Kavieng:
Soon after midnight, minelayer OKINOSHIMA lands invasion troops at Blanche Bay, Rabaul. The invasion forces swiftly overcome light Australian opposition and occupy both Rabaul and Kavieng.

23 January 1942:
CLYDE MARU departs Truk for Rabaul in an invasion fleet consisting of TAIFUKU, MITO, CHERIBON, VENICE, HIBI, MOJI, YOKOHAMA and CHINA MARUs with close escorts auxiliary netlayer SHUKO MARU and auxiliary subchasers KYO MARU No. 8 and KYO MARU No. 10.

25 January 1942:
Arrives at Rabaul.

10 June 1942:
At 0900, CLYDE MARU departs Rabaul in an unnumbered convoy also consisting of MITO MARU escorted by armed merchant cruiser NOSHIRO MARU.

23 June 1942:
Arrives off the Bungo Straits. NOSHIRO MARU is detached.

9 August 1942:
CLYDE MARU departs Mutsure in convoy No. 147 also consisting of FUSHIMI, SHINAI and ERIE MARUs and DAIGEN MARU No. 8 and three unidentified merchants escorted by kaibokan KURETAKE and auxiliary gunboat PEKING MARU.

13 August 1942:
Arrives at Mako.

5 January 1943:
Rabaul, New Guinea. At 0930, CLYDE MARU and other Japanese shipping in Simpson Harbor undergo bombing by USAAF Boeing B-17 "Flying Fortess" and Consolidated B-24 "Liberator" heavy bombers. CLYDE MARU is undamaged.

That same day, CLYDE MARU departs Rabaul for Lae, New Guinea in a troop convoy with transports BRAZIL, CHIFUKU, NICHIRYU and MYOKO MARUs escorted by DesDiv 17's destroyers MAIKAZE and URAKAZE, TANIKAZE, ISOKAZE and HAMAKAZE. The convoy is carrying units of the IJA 51st Division.

7 January 1943: Operation 18:
USAAF B-17s, B-24s, B-25s and B-26s, supported by Lockheed P-38 "Lightnings" and Curtiss P-40 "Warhawks", RAAF or RNZAF "Hudsons" and RAF PBY "Catalinas", attack the convoy and sink IJA NICHIRYU MARU off Lae at 06-30S, 149-00E and force IJA cargo ship MYOKO MARU aground S of Arawe at 06-49S, 147-04E. MAIKAZE rescues survivors of NICHIRYU MARU.

8 January 1943:
USAAF B-17s, B-24s, B-25s and A-20s, supported by P-38s, attack the convoy while it is unloading off Lae. IJA MYOKO MARU, forced aground south of Arawe the previous day, is destroyed by bombs.

10 January 1943:
RAAF "Hudson" light bombers and "Catalina" flying boats damage BRAZIL MARU off Lae. Later, USN planes also attack the convoy, but do not achieve any damage.

E 12 January 1943:
Arrives back at Rabaul.

16 January 1943:
At 0730, CLYDE MARU departs Rabaul in a convoy also consisting of BRAZIL, CHIFUKU, DELAGOA, FUKOKU, FUKUYO, INDIA and UCHIDE MARUs escorted by minesweepers W-17 and W-21.

At 0900, LtCdr (later Cdr/MOH, posthumously) Howard W. Gilmore's (USNA ’26) USS GROWLER (SS-215) attacks the convoy and torpedoes and sinks CHIFUKU MARU at 04-03N, 151-55E. One crewman is KIA.

22 January 1943:
Arrives at Palau.

26 February 1943:
CLYDE MARU departs Palau for Ujuna in convoy No. 95 also consisting of CHINZEI MARU without escort.

6 March 1943:
SE of Toizaki, Japan. At about 1530, LtCdr Eugene T. Sands' (USNA '30) USS SAWFISH (SS-276) fires three torpedoes and gets one hit on CLYDE MARU. The torpedo is a dud, but the impact damages her riveted hull plates and probably causes some flooding. The convoy retires to Ariake Bay (Shibushi Wan).

7 March 1943:
CLYDE MARU joins a northbound convoy. Minelayer NUWAJIMA escorts CHINZEI and SHICHISEI MARU ahead while cable-minelayer TSURUSHIMA, subchaser CH-36 and auxiliary minesweeper TAMA MARU No. 7 accompany damaged CLYDE MARU.

E 8 March 1943:
NUWAJIMA is detached off Fukajima.

March 1943:
CLYDE MARU is probably drydocked and undergoes hull inspection and repairs at an unknown location.

19 May 1943:
At 0530, CLYDE MARU departs Saeki in convoy K-519 also consisting of KOYO, NITTAI, MOJI, YAMAGATA, KOCHI, KANAYAMASAN and SAIPAN MARUs escorted by torpedo boat HATO, minesweeper W-18 and auxiliary minesweeper TAMA MARU No. 6.

E 21 May 1943:
W-18 is probably detached at latitude 29N.

23 July 1943
CLYDE MARU departs Manila for Moji carrying 500 American prisoners-of-war (POWs).

9 August 1943:
Arrives at Moji. All of the POWs survive the voyage to Japan.

10 September 1943:
CLYDE MARU departs Saeki in convoy O-008 also consisting of TONEI, NISSHU, UCHIDE, KAMOI, TSUYAMA, TONEGAWA, KIBI MARUs escorted by destroyer HARUKAZE, torpedo boat SAGI, minelayer YURIJIMA, auxiliary gunboat CHOUN MARU, auxiliary patrol boat NITTO MARU No. 12. TSUYAMA MARU carries 1,000 military personnel and military supplies.

11 September 1943:
At 0150 hours, LtCdr Joseph W. Wilkins' (USNA '33) USS SPEARFISH (SS-190) torpedoes TSUYAMA MARU at 30-56N, 132-47E, 110 degrees and 80 miles off the Toi promontory. TSUYAMA MARU settles by the stern and navigation becomes impossible. Five men are KIA. YURIJIMA and SAGI tow TSUYAMA MARU back to Saeki. Later, TSUYAMA MARU is towed to Osaka, undergoes permanent repairs and is returned to duty as a transport.

YURIJIMA, CHOUN MARU and NITTO MARU No. 12 are detached at 30N and conduct an overnight sweep in preparation of the arrival of convoy FU-206 consisting of YOSHIDA MARU No. 3, YASUSHIMA, EHIME, SANSEI, YUBAE and SHINRYU MARUs escorted by minesweeper W-18 and auxiliary minesweepers TAKUNAN MARU No. 8 and TAMA MARU No. 7.

13 November 1943:
CLYDE MARU departs Saeki in convoy O-306 consisting of TEIYU, BRAZIL, HAVRE, UCHIDE and YURI MARUs escorted by destroyer HARUKAZE, minelayer YURIJIMA, auxiliary minesweepers OI and TAMA MARUs.

E 15 November 1943:
YURIJIMA, OI and TAMA MARUs are detached at 28N.

25 November 1943:
CLYDE MARU departs Palau for Rabaul in convoy SO-505 also consisting of HOKKO, UCHIDE, YURI and COLUMBIA MARUs escorted by subchasers CH-24 and CH-CH-39.

28 November 1943:
At 1010, LtCdr (later Cdr) James W. Davis' (USNA ’30) USS RATON (SS-270) attacks the convoy. YURI MARU is hit by three torpedoes. She blows up and sinks at 01-40N, 141-51E. 14 crewmen and 38 troops of the Army's 2nd Debarkation Unit are KIA.

Davis next torpedoes and sinks HOKKO MARU. Three crewmen and one out of 640 troops aboard are KIA. Later that evening, USS RATON attacks the convoy unsuccessfully.

29 November 1943:
LtCdr Robert J. Foley's (USNA ’27) USS GATO (SS-212) attacks the convoy unsuccessfully.

30 November 1943:
GATO launches a second attack. Foley torpedoes COLUMBIA MARU carrying 180 survivors of YURI MARU, 5,800-tons of fuel oil, provisions and motor boats. Abandoned, she finally sinks at 01-56N, 147-21E. One crewman is KIA.

31 January 1944:
At 0920, CLYDE MARU departs Moji for Takao in convoy No. 133 also consisting of tankers TAKETSU (BUTSU), NITTETSU and SHINCHO MARUs and YOZAN, MATSUE, OSAKA, MATSUEI (SHOEI), SAHISAN, YAMAGATA, SORACHI, FUKKO, SANKO, SHINYU, and TOYO MARUs and DAIGEN MARU No. 3 escorted by patrol boat PB-31 and auxiliary minesweeper TAKUNAN MARU No. 3.

6 February 1944:
At 1500, arrives safely at Takao.

8 February 1944:
At 1100, CLYDE MARU departs Takao in convoy TAPA-01 also consisting of ASAHISAN OSAKA and MATSUEI (SHOEI) MARUs and DAIGEN MARU No. 3 escorted by PB-31 and auxiliary minesweeper TAKUNAN MARU No. 3.

16 February 1944:
At 0845, arrives at Palau.

22 February 1944:
At 0300, CLYDE MARU departs Takao with escorting convoy MOTA-12 consisting of HAKOZAKI, FUSO, KUROGANE, YOZAN, SEATTLE, CHINZEI, SHINYO, MISAKI, SHINKOKU (cargo), KAIKO, TSUKUBA, SAINEI, SHONAN and YAMAHAGI MARUs escorted by kaibokan KURI and patrol boat PB-38.

23 February 1944:
At 1010, convoy MOTA-12 is joined by KAMO MARU and an unidentified ship, both from Keelung. KAIKO MARU and six other unidentified ships are detached escorted by KURI.

29 February 1944:
At 0845, arrives at a bay near Reisui, Korea.

29 February 1944:
At 0140, departs and arrives at Tomie Goto Retto that same day.

6 March 1944:
At 0800, CLYDE MARU departs Palau for Takao, Formosa in convoy PATA-04 also consisting of TASMANIA, KENNICHI, BRAZIL, HIYAMA, ASAHISAN, KENZAN, YOZAN and CHINZEI MARUs escorted by destroyers SHIGURE and SHIRANUHI and subchasers CH-38 and CH-37.

13 March 1944:
At 1000, arrives at Takao.

2 June 1944:
CLYDE MARU departs Moji in convoy MOTA-21 (part 1) also consisting of TAMA, AZUCHISAN, HAVRE (5467 GRT), NARUO, HAMBURG, SEKIHO, TATSUAKI, SHINSHO, KINE, YAGI, IKOMASAN, TAIAN and TSUYAMA MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No. 5 and seven unidentified merchant ships escorted by kaibokan CD-14, subchasers CH-23 and CH-56 and auxiliary subchasers CHa-90 and CHa-95.

3 June 1944:
KOTO MARU No. 2 GO from Karatsu Bay joins MOTA-21.

7 June 1944:
At 0900, an enemy submarine is sighted at 28-18N, 123-03E. Later that day, TAMA MARU is detached for Kirun.

9 June 1944:
At 0900, an enemy submarine is sighted at 24-50N, 120-30E.

10 June 1944:
Arrives at Takao. Later that day, CLYDE MARU departs Moji in convoy MOTA-21 (part 2) also consisting of HAVRE (5467 GRT), NARUO, HAMBURG, SEKIHO, TATSUAKI, SHINSHO, TSUYAMA, IKOMASAN, TAIAN, YAMAHAGI MARUs, SHINSEI MARU No. 5 and one unidentified merchant ship escorted by kaibokan CD-14 and subchaser CH-23.

13 June 1944:
Arrives at Manila.

27 June 1944:
CLYDE MARU departs Manila for Kau, Halmahera Island in convoy H-30 also consisting of HAMBURG, HAVRE, SHINSHO, NARUO and TATSUAKI MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No. 5.

11 July 1944:
At 1830, CLYDE MARU departs Kau for Manila in convoy M-26 also consisting of HAMBURG, NARRUO (ex-Panamanian ESTERO), CHINKAI MARUs and SHINSEI MARU No. 5 escorted by minesweeper W- 5 and subchaser CH-60.

13 July 1944:
At 1830, the convoy arrives Bitung NE Celebes.

27 September 1944:
At 1700, CLYDE MARU departs Takao for Moji in convoy TAMO-26 also consisting of NIKKO, , HAKUSAN, MATSUURA, TAIJO, GASSAN, SEISHIN, YOKO and BIYO MARUs and SS No. 6 (kidotei) escorted by kaibokan CD-1, CD-3, CD-7, auxiliary patrol boat OSEI MARU and auxiliary minesweeper TAISEI MARU.

28 September 1944:
At 1200, arrives at Kirun, Formosa (Keelung, Taiwan). Auxiliary patrol boat OSEI MARU is detached.

30 September 1944:
At 0730, departs Keelung.

6 October 1944:
Arrives at Moji.

30 November 1944:
At 0900, CLYDE MARU departs Moji for Miri, Borneo via Manila in convoy MI-29 also consisting of tankers ENGEN, ENCHO, ENKEI and SHINYU MARUs and transports AKIKAWA, AKISHIMA, BRAZIL, HAWAII, MEIRYU, ENOURA, DAII, and KAZUURA MARUs, HOSHI MARU No. 11 and KONAN MARU No. 1 escorted by destroyer ASAGAO, kaibokan IKUNA, SHINNAN, KANJU, CD-41, CD-66, subchaser CH-28 and auxiliary subchaser CHa-223.

2 December 1944:
At about 0400, LtCdr (later Cdr) Ralph C. Style's (USNA '33) USS SEA DEVIL (SS-400) fires four torpedoes and gets one hit in HAWAII MARU’s No. 2 hold's cargo of ammunition and a series of explosions occur that set the ship afire. The flames spread to No. 4 hold where gasoline is stowed and a huge explosion occurs. HAWAII MARU sinks at 30-16N 135-48E. All 1,843 soldiers and crew aboard are KIA. All 1,843 troops together with 60 others, 83 gunners, and 148 crewmen are KIA. There are no survivors of the 2,074 men aboard.

The 22nd Sea Raiding Battalion loses five officers, 24 NCOs and 6 enlisted men. Later, two more men later die in a Taiwan hospital. Also lost are 50 motor vehicles and all 60 “Maru-ni” explosive motor boats (EMBs) and 50 men of the 22nd's maintenance company. The battalion is considered annihilated.

SEA DEVIL also sinks AKIKAWA MARU at 30-24N 128-17E. KONAN MARU No. 1 rescues survivors, but 249 troops, 7 armed escorts and 18 crewmen are KIA.

The convoy formation breaks up. CLYDE MARU and HOSHI MARU No. 11 go to Takao with IKUNA. BRAZIL MARU goes to Keelung, DAII MARU and three others go to Koniya, Amami-Oshima. Later, the Koniya ships rejoin at Takao, but the convoy is officially dissolved.

22 January 1945:
At 0600, CLYDE MARU departs Moji in convoy MOTA-33 also consisting of TEIKA MARU (ex-Vichy French CAP VARELLA), NIKKO, NANKING, TAKUSAN, SANJIN, MIYAJIMA and SHOKA MARUs escorted by destroyer KIRI and kaibokan CD-14, CD-16 and CD-46.

CLYDE MARU is carrying 1,497 12th Division and non-divisional troops including division headquarters, Headquarters, 2nd Battalion, 46th Infantry 5th Company, 2nd Battalion, 46th Infantry machine gun company, 2nd Battalion, 46th Infantry (12 heavy MGs), 2nd Battalion gun platoon (2x70mm), one-third of the 46th Infantry regimental gun company (4x75mm), one-third of the 46th Infantry regimental anti-tank gun company (6x 37mm or 47mm), one-third of the 46th Infantry regimental signals company, Headquarters, 1st Battalion, 24th Field Artillery, 2nd Company, 1st Battalion, 24th Field Artillery, 18th Transportation Regiment, 1st and 2nd Companies, one-third of the division’s 18th Engineer Regiment elements, 30th Shipping Engineer Regiment and its signals company, 13th temporary machine gun party, 188th Airfield Battalion heading for Okinawa, and 80 crewmen.

29 January 1945:
40 miles N of Keelung. LtCdr (later Cdr) Evan T. Shepard’s (USNA ‘35) USS PICUDA (SS-382) torpedoes and sinks CLYDE MARU at 25-20N, 121-06E. Survivors have little hope in the freezing water. Of the 1,577 soldiers and crewmen aboard, 972 troops, 66 gunners and 61 crewmen are KIA.

Author’s Note:
Thanks go to Allan Alsleben and the late John Whitman. Thanks also go to Erich Muethlthaler of Germany

- Bob Hackett

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