KAIBOKAN!

(Type C Escort by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships")

IJN Escort CD-27:
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2007-2016 Sander Kingsepp, Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall

Revision 2


16 February 1944:
Tsurumi, Yokohama. Laid down at Nippon Kokan K. K.’s shipyard.

3 June 1944:
Launched and numbered CD-27.

20 July 1944:
Completed and registered in the IJN. Attached to Sasebo Naval District. Assigned to Kure Guard Force.

16 August 1944:
Reassigned to General Escort Command's First Escort Fleet. At 1900 arrives at Kure.

22 August 1944:
At 0900 departs Kure and at 1800 arrives at Moji.

25 August 1944:
At 0630 CD-27 departs Moji for Singapore with escort carrier UNYO operating 10 Nakajima B5N Type 97 “Kate” carrier torpedo bombers and ferrying six Kawanishi K5Y Type 93 intermediate training float bi-planes from the Navy’s 931st Air Group, light cruiser KASHII and kaibokan CHIBURI, CD-3, CD-19 and CD-21 escorting convoy HI-73 consisting of IJA Landing craft depot ship KIBITSU MARU, ex-armed merchant cruiser GOKOKU MARU, ex-seaplane tenders KAGU and SANUKI MARUs, tankers TOHO, OMUROSAN, OTOWASAN, TAIHO, FUJISAN, HAKKO, AMATO, TOA and KUROSHIO MARUs and fleet storeship IRAKO. Later that day, the convoy is joined briefly by transports MIZUHO, ARABIA and KOKURYU MARUs and tanker MANEI MARU that all depart the following day.

26 August 1944:
CD-1 and CD-13 joins the convoy. MANEI MARU remains at Kyushu because of engine problems. CD-1 and CD-3 are detached and heads for Sasebo. At 0900, MIZUHO, ARABIA and KOKURYU MARUs are ordered away because of excessive smoke.

29 August 1944:
Arrives at Takao, Formosa. Departs that same day and arrives at Tsoying (near Takao).

1 September 1944:
Off Saei. The convoy splits. KIBITSU, GOKOKU and KAGU MARUs (and probably IRAKO) head for Manila. The remaining ships head for Singapore.

3 September 1944:
TOA MARU strikes a mine S of Saigon and is lightly damaged, but able to continue.

5 September 1944:
At 0954, arrives at Seletar, Singapore.

11 September 1944:
At 1100 CD-27 departs Seletar for Moji with Rear Admiral Yoshitomi Setsuzo's (39) (former CO of KAGA and ComSubRon 7) 5th Guard Fleet's escort carrier UNYO, light cruiser KASHII (F) and kaibokan CHIBURI, CD-13, CD-19 and CD-21 escorting convoy HI-74 consisting of tankers AZUSA, OTOWASAN, HARIMA, OMUROSAN and HAKKO MARUs.

16 September 1944:
At 2231, OMUROSAN MARU is hit by a torpedo fired by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles E. Loughlin's (USNA ’33) USS QUEENFISH (SS-393). KASHII fires a red flare signalling a submarine attack, but at 2334, 11,177-ton oiler AZUSA MARU is hit starboard side by two of a salvo of six bow torpedoes fired by Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Eugene B. Fluckey's (USNA ’35) USS BARB (SS-220) at the overlapping targets. AZUSA MARU blows up and sinks with all hands including the 100 passengers on board. UNYO is hit starboard side by the other three torpedoes in Fluckey's salvo; one in the stern in the steering compartment, the other in the engine room. UNYO settles aft.

17 September 1944:
By 0730, UNYO is listing heavily to starboard, and the order is given to abandon ship. At 0755, UNYO sinks by the stern at 19-10N, 116-35E. Her CO, Captain (Rear Admiral posthumously) Kimura Kozo (49) and more than 900 crewmen and passengers are lost as are 48 aircraft, including a cargo of 36 Imperial Army planes UNYO was carrying back to Japan for overhaul and repairs. CD-27 and CHIBURI rescue 55 officers and 706 men.

18 September 1944:
At 1800 the convoy arrives at Takao.

19 September 1944:
At 1200 departs Takao.

21 September 1944:
CD-21 detaches and goes to the assistance of tanker SHINCHO MARU from convoy HI-72 that had been bombed and damaged. CD-21 tows SHINCHO MARU into Takao and then rejoins HI-74.

23 September 1944:
At 1700, arrives at Moji. Soon after CD-27 departs.

24 September 1944:
Arrives at Sasebo.

30 September 1944:
At 0500 departs Sasebo. At 1930 arrives at Moji.

1 October 1944:
At 0800, CD-27 departs Moji with kaibokan CHIBURI, CD-19 and CD-21 escorting convoy HI-77 consisting of transports MANJU (ex-SANTOS), KINUGASA, ORYOKU MARUs, oilers OMUROSAN, OTOWASAN, ARITA, ITSUKUSHIMA, AKANE, TAIHO and KAIHO MARUs, German U-boat supply ship QUITO and two unidentified ships. Arrives at Arikawa Bay that same day.

2 October 1944:
At 0700 departs Arikawa Bay for Singapore.

5 October 1944:
ORYOKU MARU detaches for Kirun. The rest of HI-77 arrives at Takao. Before departing later that day, kaibokans ETOROFU and SHONAN join the escort.

6 October 1944:
About 1410, LtCdr (later Captain) James B. Grady's (USNA ’33) USS WHALE (SS-239) fires five torpedoes at AKANE MARU. They all hit and the 10,000-ton oiler capsizes and sinks. 747 Army Management Branch Cadets and Railway Officials and 63 crewmen are killed. Kaibokan CD-21 rescues her survivors and searches for the attacking submarine. At 1547, Cdr (later Rear Admiral) Charles W. Wilkins' USS SEAHORSE (SS-304) dives and begins an approach on the kaibokan from 16,900 yards. At 1757, Wilkins, now at 700 yards, fires a full bow spread of six torpedoes. One hits CD-21 that breaks in half and takes down 170 men including all survivors from AKANE MARU.

7 October 1944:
W of Manila. A wolf pack consisting of LtCdr (later Captain) Arnold H. Holtz’s (USNA ’31) USS BAYA (SS-318), LtCdr Henry D. Sturr’s (USNA ’33) USS BECUNA and LtCdr Francis W. Scanland, Jr’s (USNA ’34) USS HAWKBILL (SS-366) attacks convoy HI-77. At 2200, KINUGASA MARU carrying 1,000 port service workers and ammunition, is torpedoed and sunk by either USS BAYA or USS HAWKBILL. 33 crewmen and 10 passengers are KIA. MANJU MARU drops depth charges to prevent further attack.

12 October 1944:
At 1500, the remainder of HI-77 arrives at Singapore.

16 October 1944:
Keio University, Yokohama. From the Combined Fleet's new underground headquarters, Chief of Staff Vice Admiral Kusaka Ryunosuke (41)(former CO of AKAGI) releases a dispatch that assigns CD-27, kaibokan CD-19, CHIBURI, minelayer YURISHIMA, and minesweeper W-34 with oiler ITSUKUSHIMA MARU to Vice Admiral Kurita Takeo's (38)(former CO of KONGO) First Striking Force's 1st Supply Force with oilers NICHEI, YUHO, OMUROSAN, RYOEI and MANEI (BANEI) MARUs. Later, IJA oilers HAKKO and NIPPO MARUs are also assigned to Kurita's force.

17 October 1944:
Vice Admiral Kurita orders CD-27 and minelayer YURISHIMA to proceed to Brunei with NIPPO and OMUROSAN MARUs. He also orders CHIBURI and CD-19 to proceed to Brunei Bay, Borneo with ITSUKUSHIMA and BANEI MARUs.

19 October 1944:
Departs Singapore.

22 October 1944:
Arrives at Brunei. At 0800, Kurita's Striking Force steams for Leyte Gulf via the Sibuyan Sea and San Bernardino Strait. Kurita orders Vice Admiral Nishimura Shoji's (39)(former CO of HARUNA) BatDiv 2, cruiser MOGAMI and four destroyers to sortie through Surigao Strait to Leyte Gulf to envelop the U.S. invasion forces. Vice Admiral Shima Kiyohide's (39)(former CO of OI) Fifth Fleet from the Pescadores is also to sortie through Surigao Strait to Leyte Gulf.

24 October 1944:
Brunei. ITSUKUSHIMA MARU loads 13,000-tons of oil. CD-27 departs with kaibokan CHIBURI escorting oiler NIPPO MARU to refuel Shima's force.

25 October 1944:
Operation "SHO-I-GO" (Victory) - The Battle of Leyte Gulf:
In the course of battle, Kurita loses superbattleship MUSASHI, cruisers ATAGO, MAYA, CHOKAI, CHIKUMA and SUZUYA with KUMANO and TAKAO damaged severely. Several destroyers are also lost and damaged. Nishimura loses old battleships FUSO and YAMASHIRO and cruiser MOGAMI. Shima arrives behind Nishimura's force and wisely reverses course away from certain destruction.

After the battle, ITSUKUSHIMA and NIPPO MARUs are ordered to return to Brunei.

27 October 1944:
Balabac Strait, W of Palawan Passage. At about 0400, LtCdr John M. Hyde's (USNA ’34) USS BERGALL (SS-320), on patrol near Dangerous Ground, makes SJ radar contact on two targets at a great range. Hyde begins an approach on the surface. When the contacts became visible they are identified as large oilers accompanied by one large and one small escort.

Hyde sets up and fires six torpedoes at the targets. At 0440, ITSUKUSHIMA MARU is hit by one torpedo. At 0445, the second oiler in line, NIPPO MARU loaded with 13,000-tons of oil, is hit and sinks at about 0510 at 7-17N, 116-45E. 4 crewmen are KIA. ITSUKUSHIMA MARU remains afloat, but goes dead in the water and begins drifting. The escorts counter-attack and drop depth charges, but USS BERGALL clears the area on surface.

18 November 1944:
At 1200 arrives at Singapore.

27 November 1944:
At 0205 departs Singapore escorting SHISA-30 convoy consisting of EININ, TOHO, FUJISAN, HIKACHI, ENRYAKU, TATSUMIYA, YAMAKUNI and DAISHU MARUs also escorted by minesweeper W-34 and submarine chasers CH-34 and CH-35 and auxiliary gunboat HUASHAN MARU.

30 November 1944:
At 2120 arrives at St Jacques.

19 December 1944:
At 1330, CD-27 departs Moji with light cruiser KASHII, kaibokan UKURU, DAITO, CD-23, CD-51 and CD-112 escorting joint convoy HI-85 consisting of tanker SERIA and cargo SHINYU MARU and MOTA 38 consisting of IJA Landing craft depot ships HYUGA, KIBITSU, SHINSHU MARUs and transport AOBASAN MARU. MOTA-38 transports are carrying reinforcement troops of the 19th Army Division. The convoy hugs the littoral coast stopping briefly at Jinsen (Inchon), Shantung Peninsula, Choushan Island and Foochow.

23 December 1944:
At midnight, arrives off Takao.

25 December 1944:
At 1440, enters Takao. The convoy is split in two.

27 December 1944:
CD-27 departs Takao for Singapore with light cruiser KASHII and kaibokan DAITO, TSUSHIMA, UKURU, CD-23 and CD-51 escorting convoy HI-85 consisting of cargo ship TEIHOKU (ex French PERSEE) and tankers DAINAN, ENKEI, YAMAZAWA, ENGEN, ENCHO, SHINGI, DAIGYO, OTSUSAN, FUEI, OEI, SERIA MARUs and transport SHINYU MARU. Soon after departure, DAINAN MARU breaks down and returns to Takao.

28 December 1944:
TSUSHIMA is detached from the convoy and makes for Yulin, Hainan Island.

29 December 1944:
South China Sea. At 1725, minesweeper W-101 joins HI-85’s escort.

30-31 December 1944:
On both days, sporadic attacks by B-24s are beaten off without loss.

1 January 1945:
At 1720, convoy arrives Qui Nhon Bay.

2 January 1945:
Departs Qui Nhon Bay. That evening, the convoy anchors at Nha Trang Bay, Indochina.

3 January 1945:
At 0730, the convoy departs Nha Trang. While proceeding south, near the east entrance of Hainan Straits, the convoy is attacked by one PB4Y (B-24) which approaches from astern in a glide with its motor cut. One bomb hits TEIHOKU MARU (ex French PERSEE), the last ship in the west column. TEIHOKU MARU and escort TSUSHIMA are detached to Yulin for repairs. While enroute to Yulin, they are bombed again and TSUSHIMA is damaged by a near miss.

4 January 1945:
At 1030, convoy HI-85 arrives at Cape St. Jacques where it is ordered dissolved.

9 January 1945:
At 1200 CD-27 departs Cape St. Jacques for Moji with Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral posthumously) Shibuya Shiro (44) (former CO of NACHI) of the 101st Escort Group’s light cruiser KASHII, kaibokan DAITO, UKURU, CD-23 and CD-51 escorting convoy HI-86 consisting of fleet tanker SAN LUIS MARU and TATSUBATO, OTSUSAN, SHOEI, KYOKUUN, EIMAN, TATEBE, YOSHU and YUSEI MARUs and BANSHU MARU No. 63.

12 January 1945: Operation "Gratitude"- Task Force 38's Strikes on Indochina:
Convoy HI-86 departs Qui Nhon. From 1100 to 1700, Curtiss SB2C "Helldiver" dive-bombers and Grumann TBF "Avenger" torpedo-bombers from Rear Admiral (later Admiral) Frederick T. Sherman's (USNA ’10) (former CO of USS LEXINGTON, CV-2) Task Group 38.3's USS ESSEX (CV-9), USS TICONDEROGA (CV-14), USS LANGLEY (CVL-27) and USS SAN JACINTO (CVL-30) attack the convoy.

Sherman's planes damage CD-27, that is screening KASHII off her Port quarter, fleet tanker SAN LUIS MARU, UKURU, kaibokans DAITO and sink CD-23, training cruiser KASHII (621 sailors, Captain (Rear Admiral posthumously) Matsumura Midori (48) and Rear Admiral (Vice Admiral posthumously) Shibuya Shiro (44) KIA), CD-51(159 sailors KIA), YOSHU (45 crewmen and five gunners lost) and EIMAN (with bauxite and raw rubber. 19 crewmen and 13 gunners KIA) MARUs. OTSUSAN, TATEBE, KYOKUUN, YUSEI and TATSUBATO MARUs and BANSHU MARU No. 63 are so damaged by bombs and fires they have to be beached and become constructive total losses. Only three escorts survive the air attacks. Two CD-27 sailors were killed and several wounded.

13 January 1945:
At 1430, DAITO, UKURU and CD-27 arrive at Yulin, Hainan Island.

14 January 1945:
At 2200, DAITO, UKURU and CD-27 arrive at Samah, Hainan Island.

15 January 1945:
Off Yulin, Hainan Island. Between 1100 and 1240, Task Force 38's planes dive-bomb and sink empty tanker HARIMA MARU with eight airplanes on deck and also damage DAITO. The escorts are closely grouped for protection along the shore near the mountains and shoot down two F6F "Hellcat" fighters as they pull up from their strafing attacks.

16 January 1945:
About 30 or 40 SB2C "Helldiver" dive-bombers and F6F fighters make another attack, but it is directed at shore targets and no serious damage is done to the escorts or the freighters.

17 January 1945:
Three fighters attack, but do no serious damage.

19 January 1945:
FRUMEL decodes a report from CD-27, describing the results of an air attack on 12 February: "Coast Defense Ships 18 and 51, and 10 merchant ships were sunk, and the escorting reconnaissance seaplane was shot down."

21 January 1945:
At 0300, CD-27 departs Yulin for Moji with kaibokan DAITO, UKURU and TSUSHIMA and escorting convoy YUTA-15 consisting of TEIHOKU (ex French PERSEE), KIBITSU and AKISHIMA MARUs. At 0500 anchors off Basuo until 2000.

22 January 1945:
At 0912 anchors off northeast Hainan Island.

23 January 1945:
At 0130, a night attack is made by a four-engine plane on TSUSHIMA, the leading escort at 25-N and 119-E. A bomb drops close by, but no damage is sustained. At 0930, the convoy is attacked at l 21-N, 111-E by a single B-24 with no damage. A message is intercepted from this B-24 reporting the exact position and composition of the convoy in plain language.

26 January 1945:
At 1350 temporarily anchors Nanji Tao.

27 January 1945:
At 0630 departs Nanji Tao.

28 January 1945:
At 1935 AKISHIMA MARU with UKURU and CD-27 split from convoy and sail on ahead.

29 January 1945:
At 2315, arrives at Ssu Chiao Shan with AKISHIMA MARU and UKURU, having been detached the previous day.

30 January 1945:
At 1535, the convoy reforms and departs Ssu Chiao Shan.

1 February 1945:
At 1900 arrives at Seito (Tsingtao).

6 February 1945:
At 1950 departs Tsingtao for Moji.

7 February 1945:
At 1800 arrives at Daito Wan.

8 February 1945:
At 0600 departs Daito Wan. At 1800 arrives at Kogunsan Gunto.

9 February 1945:
At 0700 departs Kogunsan Gunto.

10 February 1945:
At 0200 arrives at Kyosai To (Koje Island) and departs at 0700. At 1600 arrives at Moji.

11 February 1945:
At 1020 DAITO, UKURU and CD-27 depart Mutsure.

12 February 1945:
At 1150 the three escorts arrive at Sasebo. All undergo repairs.

10 March 1945:
At 0620 kaibokan DAITO and UKURU depart Moji in convoy MOSHI-01 consisting only of ABUKUMAGAWA MARU.

11 March 1945:
At 1800 CD-27 departs Sasebo and catches up with the convoy.

15 March 1945:
At 0700 arrives at Bell Buoy and later arrives at Shanghai.

18 March 1945:
CD-27 and kaibokan DAITO and UKURU depart Shanghai in convoy SHIMO-01 consisting of YUKIKAWA MARU and three unidentified merchant ships.

23 March 1945:
At 0900 arrives at Katoku Suido.

24 March 1945:
At 1500 DAITO, UKURU and CD-27 depart Katoku Suido to arrive near Moji and meets the “Hosho Maru convoy” consisting of tanker HOSHO MARU escorted by kaibokan CD-8, CD-33, CD-55, UKURU and auxiliary subchaser CHa-27.

25 March 1945:
At 1800 arrives at Kokusan Gunto, Chosen.

26 March 1945:
At 2200 departs Kokusan Gunto.

E 2 April 1945:
Arrives at Yulin.

20 April 1945:
Departs Shanghai for Maizuru in company of kaibokans DAITO, UKURU, OKINAWA and CD-57, escorting KOTOBUKI MARU (ex-Italian liner CONTE VERDE).

22 April 1945:
KOTOBUKI MARU and her escorts are attacked by ten Consolidated B-24 "Liberators”, but they score no hits. One bomber is damaged and later forced to ditch. The convoy arrives at Tsingtao, China, the same day.

25 April 1945:
Arrives at Chinkai (Jinhae) harbor, Korea.

8 May 1945:
SW of Mokpo, SW coast of Korea. Enroute to Japan, KOTOBUKI MARU hits a mine laid by USAAF 20th Air Force B-29 "Superfortress" heavy bomber at 34-30N, 126-09E.

6 August 1945:
Undergoes repairs.

15 September 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

20 November 1945:
At Sasebo. Decommissioned.

1 December 1945:
Assigned to the Allied Repatriation Service as a Special Transport. [12]

28 December 1945:
Undergoes repairs at Sasebo.

10 February 1946:
This phase of repairs is completed.

20 February 1946:
Undergoes repairs at Kagoshima.

12 March 1946:
Completes repairs.

13 April 1946:
Begins duties as a Repatriation Service Transport. Departs Hakata.

15 April 1946:
Arrives at Shanghai. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated. Departs later the same day.

19 April 1946:
Arrives at Hakata. Disembarks troops and passengers.

28 April 1946:
Departs Hakata.

30 April 1946:
Arrives at Korojima near Tsientsin. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated.

13 May 1946:
Departs Korojima.

17 May 1946:
Arrives at Hakata. Disembarks troops and passengers.

25 May 1946:
Departs Hakata.

27 May 1946:
Arrives at Korojima. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated. Departs later the same day.

31 May 1946:
Arrives at Hakata. Disembarks troops and passengers.

17 June 1946:
Departs Hakata.

20 June 1946:
Arrives at Korojima. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated.

21 June 1946:
Departs Korojima.

24 June 1946:
Arrives at Hakata. Disembarks troops and passengers.

30 June - 15 July 1946:
Under repair at Sasebo.

14 August 1946:
Departs Kagoshima.

19 August 1946:
Arrives at an unknown destination and departs later that day.

23 August 1946:
Arrives at Shanghai. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated.

30 August 1946:
Departs Shanghai.

1 September 1946:
Arrives at Sasebo. Disembarks troops and passengers.

28 September 1946:
Departs Ujina.

29 September 1946:
Arrives at Okinawa. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated.

1 October 1946:
Departs Okinawa.

3 October 1946:
Arrives at Kure. Disembarks troops and passengers.

5 October 1946:
Departs Ujina.

8 October 1946:
Arrives at Okinawa. Embarks troops and passengers to be repatriated. Departs later the same day.

12 October 1946:
Arrives at Kure. Disembarks troops and passengers.

21 October 1946:
Completes Repatriation Service duties.

19 November 1946 - 3 December 1946:
Undergoes repairs at Sasebo.

14 August 1947:
Ceded to the United Kingdom as a war reparation. Thereafter, scrapped at Singapore.


Authors’ Note:

[1] Allied occupation forces were responsible for the return of six million Japanese military personnel and civilians from Japan's defunct far-flung Empire. In addition, there were over a million Korean and about 40,000 Chinese prisoners and conscript laborers and approximately 7,000 Formosans and 15,000 Ryukyu Islanders to be repatriated.

Some Allied and many former IJN warships, from aircraft carriers to kaibokan, were used to facilitate the enormous repatriation effort. Japanese vessels and crews were used to the fullest extent possible to conserve Allied manpower and accelerate demobilization. Each ex-IJN ship first had to be demilitarized; guns removed or, in the case of large warships, barrels severed, ammunition landed, and radar and catapults removed, if fitted. Repatriation of the Chinese on Japanese ships began early in October from Hakata, but U.S. guard detachments had to be placed on many ships to prevent disorder because the Japanese crews could not control the returnees.

Japanese-run repatriation centers were established at Kagoshima, Hario near Sasebo, and Hakata near Fukuoka. Other reception centers were established and operated at Maizuru, Shimonoseki, Sasebo, Senzaki, Kure, Uraga, Yokohama, Moji and Hakodate. Allied line and medical personnel supervised the centers. Incoming Japanese were sprayed with DDT, examined and inoculated for typhus and smallpox, provided with food, and transported to his final destination in Japan.

Thanks to Mr. Gilbert Casse of France for his assistance in preparing Revision 1. Special thanks go to Hans Mcilveen of the Netherlands for info on FRUMEL intercepts.

-Sander Kingsepp, Bob Hackett and Peter Cundall


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