(Type C Escort by Takeshi Yuki scanned from "Color Paintings of Japanese Warships")

IJN Escort CD-22:
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2007-2016 Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

Revision 9

1 November 1943:
Nagasaki. CD-22 is laid down at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ shipyard as kaibokan No. 596.

27 January 1944:
Launched and numbered CD-22.

30 January 1944:
Reserve Lt Ichinose Shiro (the former CO of converted gunboat SHINKO MARU No. 1) is appointed Chief Equipping Officer of CD-10 and CD-22.

10 March 1944:
Reserve Lt Baba Katashi (former CO of converted gunboat NANYO) is appointed Chief Equipping Officer.

24 March 1944:
Completed and registered in the IJN. Assigned to the Kure Guard Unit. Attached to Maizuru Naval District. Reserve Lt Baba Katashi is the Commanding Officer.

25 March 1944:
Arrives at Sasebo.

30 March 1944:
Departs Sasebo.

21 April 1944:
CD-22 departs Tungchiaoshan (near Shanghai) with minelayer SHIRATAKA, destroyers ASAKAZE, SHIRATSUYU and FUJINAMI, kaibokan CD-20, KURAHASHI, minesweeper W-22, subchasers CH-37, CH-38, gunboats UJI, ATAKA and auxiliary minesweeper TAMA MARU No. 7 escorting the Take ("Bamboo") convoy consisting of transports transports KAZUURA, MITSUKI, BRAZIL, TENSHINZAN (AMATSUSAN), ADEN, TAJIMA, YOZAN, MANSHU, FUKUYO, TEIKAI (ex-German FULDA), TEIKA (ex-French CAP VARELLA), KANAN MARUs, UNKAI MARU No.12 and YOSHIDA MARU No. 1 and an unidentified ship.

E 25 April 1944:
CD-22 is detached from the convoy, probably off Takao.

28 April 1944:
At 0600, CD-22 departs Tokyo Bay with kaibokan NOMI, CD-12, CD-18, minesweeper W-27 and submarine chasers CH-16 and CH-18 escorting "Higashi Matsu" Convoy No.7 (outbound) consisting of TATSUHARU, MITAKESAN, ASAHISAN, OKINAWA, YAMATAMA, BINGO, MEIRYU, MOJI and MIHO MARUs bound for Saipan; ASAKA MARU and landing ships T.128 and T.150 for Palau; KOSHIN and BOKUYO MARUs for Yap and TAITO MARU for Chichi-jima.

29 April 1944:
At 1230 W-27 is detached and returns to Nagaura.

May 1944:
The convoy's participants arrive safely at their destinations.

4 June 1944:
At Davao. CD-22 receives bunker fuel from oiler NICHIEI MARU.

5 June 1944: The Battle of the Marianas:
Vice Admiral Ozawa Jisaburo’s (37)(former CO of HARUNA) 2nd Supply Force oilers AZUSA and GENYO MARUs escorted by kaibokan CD-22, KANJU, MANJU and MIYAKE are ordered to proceed to Surigao Strait, Philippines.

7 June 1944:
Oiler SUNOSAKI departs Davao escorted by kaibokan CD-22.

9 June 1944:
At 1000 arrives at Palau.

26 June 1944:
At 0225 departs Bacolod. Joins up with tankers NICHIEI, RYOEI, OKIGAWA and AZUSA MARUs escorted by destroyers HATSUSHIMO, YUKIKAZE and UZUKI and kaibokan MANJU.

1 July 1944:
At 2105 arrives at Mutsure.

6 July 1944:
At 1245, CD-22 departs Miike, Kyushu for Takao, Formosa with destroyer HATSUSHIMO, kaibokan CD-1 and minesweeper W-34 escorting convoy MOMA-02 consisting of SEATTLE, SHOZAN, JINZAN, TOKUSHIMA, HIZAN (HIYAMA), KOKKA, YASUKUNI, MANTAI, MITSUKI, TENSHIN and RYOFU MARUs and four unidentified merchant ships.

12 July 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

14 July 1944:
At 1900, CD-22 departs Takao for Manila with kaibokan KUSAGAKI, CD-1 and minelayers MAESHIMA, ENTO and minesweeper W-34 escorting convoy TAMA-21C consisting of MANTAI, MITSUKI, JINSAN, SEATTLE, YASUKUNI, TENSHIN, YAMATAMA, SAINEI, HIZAN (HIYAMA), KOKKA, TOKUSHIMA, SHOZAN and SHOKEI MARUs and tankers SHONAN, MITSU, AYAGIRI and AYAZONO MARUs and three unidentified merchant ships. [1]

16 July 1944:
At 0946, LtCdr Harold E. Ruble's (USNA ’33) USS PIRANHA (SS-389) torpedoes and sinks SEATTLE MARU at 19-17N, 120-15E. The ship was carrying 4,285 IJNAF personnel. HIYAMA and SHOZAN MARUs rescue all but 296 of the airmen, 25 gunners and 45 crewmen. Over the next six hours, Captain (later Rear Admiral-Ret) William V. O'Regan’s (USNA ’23) wolf pack, nicknamed the "Mickey Finns", consisting of LtCdr Duncan C. MacMillian's (USNA ’26) USS THRESHER (SS-200), LtCdr (later Rear Admiral) Novell G. Ward's (USNA ’35) USS GUARDFISH (SS-217) and Ruble's USS PIRANHA closes in and decimates the convoy.

At 2300, MacMillian's USS THRESHER torpedoes and sinks SAINEI MARU at 18-53N, 119-32E. 21 troops and passengers on board, and three crewmen are KIA. At 2350, Ward's USS GUARDFISH torpedoes and sinks JINZAN MARU. 38 troops, one passenger, seven gunners, two watchmen and three crewmen are killed – a total of 51 dead. Two minutes later, Ward torpedoes and sinks MANTAI MARU. 72 military passengers and 43 crewmen are KIA.

17 July 1944:
The attacks continue. At 0034,Ward's USS GUARDFISH torpedoes and sinks HIYAMA MARU her decks full of Type 95 light tanks, motor vehicles, equipment, and ammunition. The ship was loaded with the 12th Independent Tank totaling 101 troops, of whom four along with four of the crew are KIA. W-34 and CD-1 rescue survivors. At 0345, MacMillian's USS THRESHER torpedoes and sinks SHOZAN MARU at 18-50N, 119-43E. 24 Gunners, 125 troops, 500 SEATTLE MARU survivors and 64 crewmen are killed. CD-1 and W-34 rescue the survivors.

19 July 1944:
At 1920, convoy TAMA-21C arrives at Manila.

30 July 1944:
125 miles W of Jolo. At about 0100, KOKUYO MARU which is being escorted by kaibokan CD-22 and submarine chasers CH-30 and CH-33 en route from Manila to Balikpapan and Macassar, is attacked by LtCdr (later Cdr) Lawrence L. Edge's (USNA ’35) USS BONEFISH (SS-223). Hit by four of five torpedoes Edge fires in a night surface radar attack. Blows up and sinks by the stern at 06-03N, 120-00E. Nine crewmen are killed.

20 August 1944:
CD-22 is assigned to the 31st Escort Squadron, Combined Fleet.

23 August 1944:
Cdr Samuel D. Dealey’s (USNA ’30) USS HARDER (SS-257) and LtCdr (later Rear Admiral-Ret) Chester W. Nimitz' (USNA ’36) HADDO (SS-255) are trailing 1TL tanker NIYO MARU, a straggler from convoy TAMA-24A from Takao to Manila, that is towing old destroyer ASAKAZE towards Dasol Bay. About 0700. USS HADDO torpedoes and sinks ASAKAZE at 16-6N, 119-44 E. The number of survivors is unknown but probably large. Nimitz' USS HADDO, out of torpedoes, is detached and heads for Biak. NIYO MARU radios Manila of her situation. That evening, headquarters, Third Expeditonary Fleet dispatches CD-22 and Lt Yoshima Tomoyoshi's patrol boat PB-102 (ex-USS STEWART) from Cavite to intercept her. At 1757, both depart Cavite. PB-102, steaming at 13 knots, first finds NIYO MARU. CD-22 joins them later.

24 August 1944:
At 0630, as USS HARDER and LtCdr Frank E. Haylor’s (USNA ’36) USS HAKE (SS-256) close Dasol Bay, Haylor makes out a three-stack ship and a smaller one coming out of the bay. Haylor consults his ONI 41-42 naval-intelligence warship recognition booklet. He incorrectly identifies three-stack ship patrol boat PB-102 as old Thai destroyer PHRA RUANG and also mis-identifies CD-22 as a minesweeper. The ships turn and seem to be coming in for a depth-charge run. As they come out of the harbor, the crews of PB-102 and CD-22 see the two submarines' periscopes. PB-102's captain turns about and heads back into Dasol Bay, but CD-22 comes straight on. [2]

LtCdr Haylor does not like the setup, so USS HAKE breaks off, but USS HARDER continues in towards the bay. While PB-102 is escorting NIYO MARU, CD-22 suddenly comes under a torpedo attack. Cdr Dealey fires three torpedoes at CD-22 in a "down-the-throat" attack, but misses. Two torpedoes pass off CD-22's port side and one off her starboard side. After evading the torpedoes, CD-22 picks up USS HARDER with her Type 3 sonar. At 0728, CD-22 commences a series of depth charge runs with her Type 94 DC throwers with each charge set to detonate deeper than the last. The fifth salvo sinks USS HARDER and her entire crew. A large amount of oil, pieces of cork and wood surface thereafter. CD-22 soon departs the area to catch up with PB-102 and NIYO MARU. At 1948, all three arrive at Manila. [3]

27 August 1944:
At 0900, CD-22 departs Manila with kaikoban SHIMUSHU, ETOROFU, SHONAN, CD-7, CD-28 and CH-41 and patrol boat PB-102 (ex-USS STEWART, DD-224) escorting convoy MAMO-02 consisting of KASHII, MAYASAN, NISSHO and NOTO MARUs. At 1548, anchors in Subic Bay.

28 August 1944:
At 0600, departs Subic Bay.

30 August 1944:
Arrives at Takao. Destroyers WAKABA and HATSUSHIMO join the escort. Subchaser CH-41, patrol boat PB-102 and kaibokan CD-7 and CD-28 are detached.

31 August 1944:
Departs Takao. Later that day, ORYOKU MARU joins the convoy.

4 September 1944:
At 0500, arrives at Takao.

18 October 1944:
At 0900 CD-22 and CD-43 depart Sasebo.

19 October 1944:
At 1200 both arrive at Tokuyama.

20 October 1944: Operation SHO-I-GO ("Victory") – The Battle of Leyte Gulf:
LtCdr Haneba Ryo's CD-22 departs Yashima anchorage with kaibokan CD-29, CD-31, CD-33, CD-43 and CD-132 escorting oilers TAKANE and JINEI MARUs of Vice Admiral Ozawa Jisaburo's (37) (former CO of HARUNA) Northern "decoy" Mobile Force’s Second Supply Force. The Supply Force supports Ozawa's CarDiv 3's ZUIKAKU, ZUIHO, CHITOSE and CHIYODA and CarDiv 4's battleship-carrier hybrids HYUGA and ISE.

21 October 1944:
CD-22 and two other kaibokan depart Tokuyama Fuel Depot for Koniya, Kakaroma-Jima, Ryukyus with TAKANE MARU.

22 October 1944:
Ozawa's force refuels at sea. Sound contact is made with a submarine. At 2010, ZUIKAKU and light cruiser TAMA spot torpedo tracks and make a sharp turn to port. Destroyer WAKATSUKI is detached to repel the submarine. Ozawa is forced to cancel the refueling after receiving only one third of the required amount.

24 October 1944:
Destroyer AKIKAZE departs Kure to lead the escort of the Second Supply Force.

25 October 1944: The Battle off Cape Engano:
Ozawa's force is attacked by planes from Vice Admiral (later Admiral) Marc Mitscher's (USNA ’10) Task Force 38’s USS ENTERPRISE (CV-6), USS ESSEX (CV-9), USS INTREPID (CV-11), USS FRANKLIN (CV-13), USS LEXINGTON (CV-16), USS INDEPENDENCE (CVL-22), USS BELLEAU WOOD (CVL-24), USS LANGLEY (CVL-27), USS CABOT (CVL-28) and USS SAN JACINTO (CVL-30).

TF 38 launches 527 sorties in five strikes against Ozawa’s Northern Force. During the day's action, carriers ZUIKAKU (Captain [Vice Admiral posthumously] Kaizuka Takeo (46), forty-eight officers and 794 petty officers and men lost), ZUIHO (six officers and 208 sailors lost) and CHITOSE (Captain [Rear Admiral posthumously] Kishi Yoshiyuki (47) and 903 officers and men KIA) and destroyer AKIZUKI (183 sailors KIA) are sunk.

That same day, S of Yaku Jima, LtCdr Orme C. Robbins’ (USNA ’34) USS STERLET (SS-392) torpedoes and sinks oiler JINEI MARU at 30-15N, 129-45E. 69 crewmen are KIA. Destroyer AKIKAZE helps rescue JINEI MARU's survivors and takes them to Mako, Pescadore Islands.

28 October 1944:
CarDiv 4’s HYUGA and ISE refuel from oilers at Amami-Oshima. CarDiv 4 and destroyers depart for the Inland Sea. At 2120, LtCdr (later Vice Admiral) Vernon L. Lowrance’s (USNA ’30) USS SEA DOG (SS-401) attacks CarDiv 4. He misses with six Mark 18 electric torpedoes.

That same day, TAKANE MARU is ordered to steam to Takao, but she has a faulty boiler that limits her speed to 12 knots and prevents her from complying.

29 October 1944:
CarDiv 4 and its destroyers depart Amami-Oshima for the Inland Sea. At 0415, the group is picked up on radar at 24,000 yards and tracked by LtCdr Robbins’ (USNA ’34) USS STERLET. Robbins goes to full emergency power and closes to 12,000 yards but CarDiv 4, making 22 knots, outruns USS STERLET. CarDiv 4 arrives safely at Kure.

TAKANE MARU receives new orders to proceed to Kure for repairs. At 1500, she departs with CD-22, CD-29 and CD-33 as a separate group.

30 October 1944:
LtCdr (later Vice Admiral) Frederick J. Harlfinger’s (USNA ’37) USS TRIGGER (SS-237) picks up oiler TAKANE MARU with her escorts and attacks. One torpedo broaches alerting the oiler that avoids the other torpedoes. At 1620, Harlfinger fires again and hits TAKANE MARU starboard aft in the engine room One torpedo heads for CD-22, but she dodges it. CD-29 counter-attacks USS TRIGGER with depth charges. Later, Harlfinger surfaces and notifies his wolf pack mates.

130 nm SW of Toizaki, Kyushu. CD-22, CD-29 and CD-33 are guarding the immobilized TAKANE MARU. At about 2100 that night, LtCdr Harley K. Nauman’s (USNA ’34) USS SALMON (SS-182) fires four torpedoes for two hits. The escorts counter-attack. USS SALMON crash dives, but is damaged badly by a severe depth charging. Her pressure hull is dished in, an engine is knocked off its base plate, radio and radar equipment damaged and she begins leaking heavily. USS SALMON sinks to 500 feet out of control. Her diving officer finally checks her descent, but cannot hold her. Nauman decides to battle surface and engage the escorts with USS SALMON’s deck guns.

USS SALMON surfaces in the midst of a heavy squall. Nauman’s crew quickly begins to correct a 15-degree list, puts two of USS SALMON’s diesel engines on line and stops some leaks. At about 2200, CD-29 sights a surfaced submarine off her starboard bow, 500 meters away. CD-29 switches on her searchlight and opens fire with her 120-mm bow gun, but loses the target after the first salvo. At 2235, CD-22 and CD-33 arrive and attack USS SALMON from different directions. CD-22 charges the submarine intent on ramming. Nauman, in turn, charges the kaibokan. The two vessels pass each other just 50 yards apart. CD-22 opens fire on the submarine with her 25-mm AA gun. USS SALMON’s machine-guns, 20-mm AA and deck guns return fire and kill four of CD-22's sailors and wound another 14. CD-22 is also hit in the bow by a dud shell that causes a temporary leak. Her speed drops to 11 knots.

31 October 1944:
SW of Kyushu. At about 0100, LtCdr Robbins’ (USNA ’34) USS STERLET finds TAKANE MARU dead in the water and down by the stern. No escorts are in sight. Robbins fires six torpedoes by radar bearings and gets four hits that finish off the oiler. TAKANE MARU sinks at 30-09N, 132-45E. All passengers and all 66 crewmen on board are killed. CD-29 briefly chases USS STERLET but soon loses contact. [4]

1 November 1944:
CD-22 arrives at Kure and is dry-docked for battle damage repairs.

20 November 1944:
CD-22 is reassigned to the Fifth Fleet.

18 December 1944:
Departs Keelung to provide distant anti-submarine cover for new carrier UNRYU that is en route to the Philippines.

25 December 1944:
CD-22 is reassigned to the General Escort Command’s First Escort Fleet.

18 January 1945:
Departs Sasebo with subchaser CH-58, escorting auxiliary gunboat CHOHAKUSAN MARU en route to Ishigaki-Jima to deliver "Shinyo" type explosive motorboats of the 38th Attack Unit.

24 January 1945:
SW of Kyushu. At 0740, CD-22 detects LtCdr James D. Grant's (USNA ’31) USS GREENLING (SS-213) with her sonar and attacks the submarine with depth charges until 1030, when contact is lost. Later that night, CD-22 picks up submarine radio traffic at 4235 kilocycles, probably originating from USS GREENLING.

28 January 1945:
Arrives at Ishigaki.

2 February 1945:
CD-22 departs Kirun with kaibokan SHINNAN, KURAHASHI auxiliary gunboat CHOHAKUSAN MARU and sub-chasers CH-19 and CH-58 in convoy TAMO-40 consisting of MASASHIMA MARU and three unidentified merchant ships.

5 February 1945:
At 1737 arrives at Taichou (Taizhou) Island Group and anchors.

6 February 1945:
At 0625 departs Taichou Island anchorage. At 1517 arrives at Liu Heng Tao.

7 February 1945:
At 0533 departs Liu Heng Tao. At 1820 arrives at the Ssu Chiao Shan anchorage.

8 February 1945:
At 0500 departs the Ssu Chiao Shan anchorage.

12 February 1945:
Arrives at Moji.

27 February 1945:
Minelayer TOKIWA and converted minelayer KOEI MARU lay about 1,000 mines in an area S of Yaku Shima. CD-22, CD-29 and CD-68 provide escort. [6]

13-17 March 1945:
Participates in offensive anti-submarine sweep "AS-2" with CD-29, CD-68 and probably CD-18 from Sasebo. At 1135 13 March CD-22 and CD-29 arrive at Sasebo.

22 March 1945:
At 0400, CD-22 departs Tomie, Goto Islands for Ishigaki-Jima with kaibokan CD-215, CD-219 and auxiliary minesweepers TOSHI MARU No.7 and HIMESHIMA MARU escorting convoy SAI-05 consisting of DORYO, TAKASAKI, SEIGA and KASHIMA MARUs and NISSHO MARU No. 1.

23 March 1945:
87 miles NNW of Naha, Okinawa. At 1713, LtCdr William J. Germershausen's (USNA ’35) USS SPADEFISH (SS-411) torpedoes and sinks DORYO MARU. She was carrying a unit of IJN the IJA’s 39th Shinyo Unit and its troops and 28 "Shinyo" explosive motor boats. 39 crewmen, 21 watchmen (lookouts), and 262 navy personnel; a total of 302 men are killed. The kaibokan counter-attack USS SPADEFISH and drop 52 depth charges, but USS SPADEFISH evades with only slight damage.

14 April 1945:
At 0700 CD-22 and CD-29 depart Sasebo.

15 April 1945:
At 0700 minelayer EIJO MARU arrives at Saeki escorted by kaibokan CD-22 and CD-29.

22 April 1945:
At 0800 minelayers KYOSAI, NIIZAKI, SAISHU and NUWAJIMA escorted by kaibokan CD-22 depart Sasebo. At 1400 they anchor in Imari Wan.

24 April 1945:
At Himejima anchorage minelayer EIJO MARU transfers mines to minelayers SAISHU, NIIZAKI, NUWAJIMA and KYOSAI.

25 April 1945:
CD-22 is reassigned to the 31st Coast Defense Group.

26 April 1945:
At 1510 off Imari Wan minelayer NIIZAKI and CD-29 separate from CD-22 and head to Sasebo.

28 April 1945:
At 1000 NUWAJIMA and KYOSAI with kaibokan CD-22 for escort depart Kogushi (Ogushi) Wan for Saiki.

29 April 1945:
At 1530 NUWAJIMA, SAISHU and KYOSAI with kaibokan CD-22 arrive at Saiki.

8 May 1945:
At 0900 CD-22 departs Saiki for Yawata.

11 May 1945:
At 1900 off Hakata Wan CD-22 meets up with minelayer KOEI MARU and later CD-29. The ships sail to Mutsure anchorage.

12 May 1945:
At 0700 the ships return to Hakata Wan.

19 May 1945:
At 1000 minelayers KOEI MARU, KYOSAI, SAISHU and TOKIWA and kaibokan CD-22, CD-29 and CD-44 depart Sasebo. At 1800 the ships anchor at Karatsu Wan.

21 May 1945:
At 0900 at Moji KYOSAI and SAISHU are detached and proceed to Saiki.

28 May 1945:
At 0830 departs Sasebo with KOEI MARU and CD-29. At 1550 off Karatsu Wan CD-29 hits a mine that damages her engines severely.

1 June 1945:
At 1158, departs Nagoya Bay. Meets up en route with minelayer EIJO MARU.

3 June 1945:
At 0926 arrives at Maizuru.

21 June 1945:
At 1004, departs Maizuru for Nanao.

22 June 1945:
At 0955, arrives at Nanao-Hoku Bay.

23 June 1945:
Add at 0300, departs Nanao-Hoku Bay.

23 June 1945:
SE of Rokugo Zaki, NE of Noto Peninsula. At 0300, departs Nanao-Hoku Bay. Early in the morning, a Maizuru-based Aichi E13A1 "Jake“ reconnaissance floatplane of the 901st NAG fitted with a MAD device detects a submerged submarine and attacks it with a 250-kg depth-charge. CD-22 and CD-26, enroute from Maizuru to Nanao Bay, are directed to the same area and attack the target at 0735. CD-22 drops 46 depth charges. [5]

24 June 1945:
At 1807, arrives at Nanao.

30 June 1945:
Reserve Lt Ishida Yasuo (former CO of T.153) is appointed CO.

15 August 1945:
Nanao-Hoku Bay. CD-22’s crew is notified of Japan’s surrender to the Allies.

24 August 1945:
Maizuru. CD-22 is decommissioned.

30 September 1945:
CD-22 is assigned to the Allied Repatriation Service, but never makes any voyages.

30 November 1945:
Removed from the Navy List.

1 December 1945: :
Redesignated as special duty minesweeper.

20 December 1945: :
Redesignated as Minesweeper No. 20, performs minesweeping duty off the Honshu coast.

4 February 1946:
CD-22 is formally reassigned from the Allied Repatriation Service to minesweeping duties with the Allied Occupation Forces. [6]

1 August 1946:
CD-22 is laid up at Sasebo.

5 September 1947:
Ceded to the United States as a war reparation.

20 October 1947:
Sasebo. Start of scrapping.

31 December 1947:
Completes scrapping.

Authors’ Note:
[1] Ship could be KOKKO MARU (2TM tanker), but is more likely KOKKA MARU.

[2] Sources conflict as to the identity of ships. Some accounts include PHRA RUANG, but Japanese accounts claim that it was patrol boat PB-102 rather than PHRA RUANG. PB-102 escorted JINYO MARU to Dasol Bay, but took no part in action against HARDER.

[3] Cdr Dealey, the "destroyer killer", is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.

[4] USS' STERLET, TRIGGER and SALMON each receive 1/3 credit for sinking TAKANE MARU.

[5] The target may have been the wreck of USS BONEFISH (SS-223) sunk in that area earlier.

[6] In 1945, the U. S. Army Air Force launched a five-phased campaign known as “Operation Starvation” to mine Japan’s home waters. The USAAF used 80 to 100 B-29 “Super Fortress” heavy bombers of the 21st Bomber Command based at Tinian in the Marianas. The B-29s could carry seven 2,000 lb. or twelve 1,000 lb. mines.

Beginning on 27 March 1945 and continuing until 5 August 1945, the B-29s flew 1,529 nighttime radar sorties and laid 4,900 magnetic, 3,500 acoustic, 2,900 pressure and 700 low-frequency mines for a total of more than 12,000 mines laid in Japanese waters. These mines sank 294 ships, damaged 137 beyond repair and damaged another 239 that could be repaired. The total was 1, 250,000 tons sunk or damaged or about 75 percent of Japanese shipping available in March 1945. Only 15 B-29s were lost during the mining campaign.

Postwar, removal of these mines posed a major challenge for the Allied Occupation Forces. They pressed 269 Japanese ships of various types into mine sweeping service to augment their own efforts.

Thanks go to Dr. Higuchi Tatsuhiro of Japan and Mr. Gilbert Casse of France.

-Bob Hackett, Sander Kingsepp and Peter Cundall

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