(ARABIA MARU, prewar)

IJA Hospital Ship/Transport ARABIA MARU:
Tabular Record of Movement

© 2011-2017 Bob Hackett and Erich Muehlthaler
Revision 7

19 May 1918:
Nagasaki. Laid down at Mitsubishi Zosen Kaisha as a 9,480-ton passenger-cargo ship as yard no. 271 for the Osaka Shosen Kaisha (OSK) Line.

30 March 1919:
Launched and named ARABIA MARU.

30 April 1919:
Completed. Fitted with three continuous decks, she can accommodate 42 1st Class and 314 (later 125) 3rd Class passengers and carries a crew of 105 men plus 11,500 tons of cargo. Her coal capacity is 2,700 tons.

Placed in service on OSK’s Hong Kong ~ Japan ~ Tacoma route. ARABIA MARU carries many immigrants to the Pacific Northwest.

ARABIA MARU’s engines are converted from coal to oil-fired.

26 October 1924:
Arrives at Seattle, Washington.

6 March 1930:
Kobe harbor. Collides with KASAGI MARU (3,140 grt) and suffers damage at lifeboats and hospital quarter on aft deck.

December 1929-June 1930:
ARABIA MARU’s ports of call include Shanghai, Kobe, Yokkaichi, Shimidzu (from May), Yokohama, Victoria, and Seattle.

1 February 1931:
Off Kannonzaki Lighthouse, Tokyo Bay. ARABIA MARU collides with TAKAO MARU (4,282 grt) and takes on water in the engine room. Grounded for safety on muddy sand off Onuki Town, Chiba Prefecture.

5 February 1931:
ARABIA MARU is refloated.

10 February 1931:
Yokohama. While anchored and undergoing repairs at Buoy No. 10, a fire breaks out in the engine room. Taken out of the harbor the same day and the fire is extinguished.

April 1931:
Transferred to OSK's route to the East Coast of Africa.

Transferred to OSK's Kobe ~ Dalian (Dairen), Manchuria route.

19 July 1931:
ARABIA MARU departs Tacoma, Washington for Kobe. The OSK Line decides to withdraw their ships from the North Pacific route in favor of the South American route.

10 February 1931:
Yokohama. While anchored and undergoing repairs, a fire breaks out in the engine room.

Placed on OSK's South American route. Ports of call include Hong Kong, Saigon, Durban, Cape Town, Rio de Janeiro and Santos. Completes many voyages carrying Japanese immigrants to Brazil. [1]

January-December 1937:
In OSK's service with ports of call at Durban, Lourenço Marques, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Singapore, Hong Kong, Moji and Kobe to Osaka. Some voyages continue to Nagoya or Nagoya and Yokohama.

January-December 1938:
In OSK's service with ports of call at Kobe, Yokohama, Nagoya, Osaka, Moji, Hong Kong, Singapore, Colombo, Mombasa, Zanzibar, Dar-es-Salaam, Beira, Lourenço Marques, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Cape Town, Buenos Aires and return voyages via Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, Mossel Bay, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenço Marques, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Singapore, Moji, Kobe, Osaka. Some voyages continued to Nagoya and Yokohama with optional calls at Saigon, Penang, Madras, Tanga, East London, Mossel Bay, Rio de Janeiro and Santos outward; Port Louis, Beira, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanga, Penang, Manila and Hong Kong.

2 December 1940:
Arrives in Colombo, India en route to Buenos Aires carrying some passengers fleeing Nazi persecution.

15 May 1941:
Arrives at Santos, Brazil.

5 July 1941:
ARABIA MARU departs Los Angeles, California for Japan. Among her passengers is 25 year-old pre-med student Iva Ikoku Toguri, later known as "Tokyo Rose". [2]

21 November 1941:
Dairen (Dalian), Manchukuo (Manchria). Requisitioned by the Imperial Army (IJA). Allotted Army No. 989.

21 November 1941:
Departs Dairen. Employed as a Hospital Ship, at least on some voyages.

2 December 1941:
Arrives at Saigon and departs that same day.

13 December 1941: Operation “E” – The Invasion of Malaya:
At 0830, ARABIA MARU departs Camhranh Bay in TransDiv 6 also consisting of THAMES, INDIA, RISSHUN and MEXICO MARUs carrying the IJA "Dami Detachment".

16 December 1941:
At 1600, arrives at Kota Bharu, Malaya and begins landing troops.

20 December 1941:
Departs Kota Bharu.

22 December 1941:
Arrives at Saigon. Painted white overall with a green stripe and red crosses and converted to a Byoinsen (hospital ship).

31 December 1941:
Embarks personnel of the 56th Medical Group. Departs Saigon as a hospital ship.

8 January 1942:
Arrives at Takao, Formosa.

11 January 1942:
Arrives at Kirun (Keelung), Formosa.

15 January 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

17 January 1942:
Departs Takao.

26 January 1942:
Arrives at Hong Kong.

26 January 1942:
Departs Hong Kong.

28 January 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

29 January 1942:
Departs Takao.

4 February 1942:
Arrives at Lingayen, Philippines. Embarks the 100th Line of Communications Hospital and many other troops being pulled out of Luzon while the fight for Bataan is still raging.

5 February 1942:
Departs Lingayen after the large convoys.

10 February 1942:
Arrives at Jolo Island, Philippines.

17 February 1942:
At night, transports SAGAMI and SASAGO MARUs carrying part of the IJA's 48th Infantry Division depart Makassar, Celebes (now Sulawasei) for Bali, Java (now Indonesia) escorted by DesDiv 8's ASASHIO, OSHIO, ARASHIO and MICHISHIO.

19 February 1942: The Invasion of Eastern Java:
Jolo, Philippines. At 0800, the Eastern Java Invasion Convoy (Toho Koryaku Butai) consisting of 39 troop transports departs the anchorage carrying the IJA’s 48th Infantry Division in seven sections:
1st Section consisting of: KONAN, HAGUE, YAMAGIKU, KENKON, NANKO and ADEN MARUs,
2nd Section consisting of: HOLLAND, JOHORE, TAKAOKA, HOKKO, KYOKUSEI and TAEI MARUs,
3rd Section consisting of: ARIZONA, KENZAN, HIMALAYA, HAVRE, ANZAN and CHOKO MARUs (6783/20),
4th Section consisting of: YONEYAMA, NISSHU, BIYO, ITALY, ASAKA and KASHU MARUs,
6th Section consisting of: MIYADONO, JINZAN (JINSAN), WALES, SUEZ, TAMON and YASUKAWA MARUs, and the
7th Section consisting of: SATSUMA, MINRYU and HOZUGAWA MARUs.

The convoy is escorted by Rear Admiral Nishimura's heavy cruisers NACHI and HAGURO, DesRon 2's light cruisers NAKA and JINTSU and DesDiv 16's YUKIKAZE, TOKITSUKAZE, AMATSUKAZE and HATSUKAZE and DesDiv 7's USHIO, SAZANAMI, YAMAKAZE and KAWAKAZE and DesRon 4's light cruiser NAKA, DesDiv 2's YUDACHI, SAMIDARE, HARUSAME, DesDiv 9's ASAGUMO, MURASAME, MINEGUMO and NATSUGUMO.

E 21 February 1942:
Makassar Strait. SAGAMI and SASAKO MARUs join the main convoy and steam with it.

22 February 1942:
At 1200, LIVERPOOL and EHIME MARUs join the Eastern Java Invasion Convoy north of Aru Bank. The same day, HITERU and TEIRYU MARUs depart Palau carrying elements of the Sakaguchi Detachment.

23 February 1942:
HITERU and TEIRYU MARUs join the Eastern Java Invasion Convoy.

27 February 1942: The Battle of the Java Sea:
At 1547, HAGURO and NACHI, DesRon 2's JINTSU with DesDiv 16's YUKIKAZE, TOKITSUKAZE, AMATSUKAZE and HATSUKAZE and DesDiv 7's USHIO, SAZANAMI, YAMAKAZE and KAWAKAZE engage Dutch Rear Admiral Karel W. F. M. Doorman's Strike Force's light cruiser Hr.Ms. DE RUYTER (F), heavy cruisers HMS EXETER and USS HOUSTON (CA-30), light cruisers HMAS PERTH and Hr.Ms. JAVA, destroyers HMS ELECTRA, ENCOUNTER, JUPITER, Hr.Ms. KORTENAER and WITTE de WITH and old destroyers USS ALDEN (DD-211), JOHN D. EDWARDS (DD-216), JOHN D. FORD (DD-228) and PAUL JONES (DD-230).

During this day and the next day’s engagements, Doorman's Strike Force loses HMS EXETER and USS HOUSTON (CA-30), light cruisers HMAS PERTH, HrMs DE RUYTER, Hr.Ms. JAVA, destroyers HMS ELECTRA, ENCOUNTER, JUPITER and Hr.Ms. KORTENAER to superior Japanese forces. The Allies also lose old four stack USS POPE (DD-225).

1 March 1942: Operation "J" - The Invasion of Java, Netherlands East Indies:
At 0120, 100 miles W of Surabaya, Java. The Eastern Java Invasion Force now consisting of 43 transports including HAGUE MARU enters the roadstead off Kragan village, East Java.

Just before dropping anchor, the ships suffer a fierce air attack. JOHORE MARU is hit and suffers many KIA and WIA. TOKUSHIMA MARU is also hit and has to be beached at 0200. Despite the air attacks, at 0015, the convoy lands the 48th Infantry Division at Kragan village, East Java. Their main objectives are the Surabaya Naval Base on the eastern coast and Tjilatjap harbor on the southern coast.

3 March 1942:
Arrives at Singapore, Malaya.

8 March 1942:
Departs Singapore.

13 March 1942:
Arrives at St. Jacques, Indochina.

15 March 1942:
Departs St. Jacques.

18 March 1942:
Arrives at Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City), Indochina.

26 March 1942:
Departs Saigon.

31 March 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

4 April 1942:
Departs Takao.

6 April 1942:
Arrives at Lingayen, Philippines.

8 April 1942:
Departs Lingayen.

10 April 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

12 April 1942:
Departs Takao.

16 April 1942:
Arrives at Hong Kong.

17 April 1942:
Departs Hong Kong.

5 May 1942:
Arrives at Saigon.

15 May 1942:
Departs Saigon.

17 May 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

20 May 1942:
Departs Singapore.

30 May 1942:
Arrives at Rangoon, Burma (now Yangon, Myanmar).

4 June 1942:
Departs Rangoon.

7 June 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

10 June 1942:
Departs Singapore.

21 June 1942:
Arrives at Saigon.

24 June 1942:
Departs Saigon.

29 June 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

3 July 1942:
Departs Singapore.

5 July 1942:
Arrives at St. Jacques and departs the same day.

8 July 1942:
Arrives at Takao and departs the same day.

10 July 1942:
Arrives at Mako, Pescadores.

19 July 1942:
Departs Mako for Moji in convoy No. 236.

E 27 July 1942:
Arrives at Moji.

28 July 1942:
Arrives at Osaka.

2 August 1942:
Departs Osaka.

14 August 1942:
Arrives at Hong Kong.

16 August 1942:
Departs Hong Kong.

23 August 1942:
Arrives at Ujina.

25 August 1942:
Departs Ujina.

30 August 1942:
Arrives at Chinwangtao (Qinhuangdao), Hopeh Province, N China, on the Bohai Sea (Gulf of Chihli).

1 September 1942:
Departs Chinwangtao.

9 September 1942:
Arrives at Ujina.

7 October 1942:
Departs Ujina.

11 October 1942:
Arrives at Dairen and departs that day.

14 October 1942:
Arrives at Ujina.

20 October 1942:
Departs Ujina.

26 October 1942:
Arrives at Takao.

28 October 1942:
Departs Takao.

10 November 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

2 November 1942:
Departs Singapore.

14 November 1942:
Arrives at Rangoon.

15 November 1942:
Departs Rangoon.

20 November 1942:
Arrives at Belawan, NE coast of Sumatra.

21 November 1942:
Departs Belawan. That same day, Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues an official notice to all belligerent countries that ARABIA MARU is employed as a hospital ship.

27 November 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

30 November 1942:
Departs Singapore.

8 December 1942:
Arrives at Rangoon.

8 December 1942:
Departs Rangoon.

18 December 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

19 December 1942:
Departs Singapore.

20 December 1942:
Arrives at Jakarta, Java, NEI.

22 December 1942:
Departs Jakarta.

28 December 1942:
Arrives at Singapore.

30 December 1942:
Departs Singapore.

1 January 1943:
Ascends Rangoon River. At 1617, takes on board river pilot. At 1626, passes Monkey Point. At 1635, while steaming at low speed inside Rangoon Harbor, damaged in an attack by a near miss bomb by a USAAF Tenth Air Force B-24 “Liberator” heavy bomber from Pandaveswar. At 1700, ARABIA MARU comes alongside the pier.

January 1943:
Undergoes emergency repairs.

6 January 1943:
Departs Rangoon.

10 January 1943:
Arrives at Singapore.

12 January 1943:
Departs Singapore.

15 January 1943:
Arrives at Hong Kong.

18 January 1943:
Departs Hong Kong.

29 January 1943:
Arrives at Moji.

21 February 1943:
Departs Ujina.

16 March 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

8 May 1943:
Departs Takao.

29 May 1943:
Arrives at Manila.

19 June 1943:
Departs Manila.

28 June 1943:
Arrives at Kokopo, S of Rabaul, New Britain and departs that day.

2 July 1943:
Arrives at Rabaul.

3 July 1943:
Departs Rabaul.

10 July 1943:
Arrives at Manila.

14 July 1943:
Departs Manila.

16 July 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

1 August 1943:
Arrives at Kokopo and departs that day.

11 August 1943:
Arrives at Manila.

18 August 1943:
Departs Manila.

27 August 1943:
Arrives at Kokopo.

5 September 1943:
Arrives at Manila.

15 September 1943:
Departs Manila.

24 September 1943:
Arrives at Kobe.

6 November 1943:
Arrives at Ujina.

11 November 1943:
At 1600, ARABIA MARU departs Moji for Takao in convoy No. 113-MA-07 also consisting of HIDA, NANEI, TAMAHOKO, RYUYO, DAKAR, CHIYO, TOSEI, ANYO, SYDNEY, NITTETSU and NACHISAN MARUs escorted by destroyer KURETAKE.

13 November 1943:
At 0556, LtCdr Robert E. Dornin's (USNA '35) USS TRIGGER (SS-237) torpedoes and sinks NACHISAN MARU at 32-55N, 125-09E. KURETAKE drops five depth charges that damage TRIGGER slightly.

21 November 1943:
At 1140, arrives at Mako, Pescadores.

1 December 1943:
Arrives at Singapore.

3 December 1943:
Departs Singapore.

9 December 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

10 December 1943:
Departs Takao.

18 December 1943:
The Japanese Government protests attacks on the hospital ships ARABIA, TAKASAGO; AMERICAN, MANILA, URAL, HUSO, BUENOS AIRES, MURO and MIZUHO MARUs.

19 December 1943:
At 1200, ARABIA MARU departs Singapore for Moji in fleet convoy HI-24 consisting of SAHI MARU, transport TERUKUNI MARU and oilers BOKUEI and ASASHIO MARUs escorted by kaibokan KANJU.

28 December 1943:
Arrives at Takao.

4 January 1944:
Near Moji, BOKUEI MARU collides with TERUKUNI MARU and sinks at 34-04N, 130-32E. ASAHI MARU is detached for Sasebo. Later that day, the rest of the convoy arrives at Moji.

8 January 1944:
Arrives at Ujina.

9 January 1944:
Arrives at Kobe.

E 1944:
Re-rated a troop transport.[3]

23 January 1944:
ARABIA MARU departs Moji in convoy No. 131 consisting of AKAGISAN, CHOJO, HAWAII, NORFOLK, TOTTORI and USSURI MARUs and three unidentified merchant ships escorted by subchasers CH-41 and CH-43. ARABIA MARU carries elements of the IJA 147th Infantry Regiment, 46th Division including the regimental HQ, 1s and 3rd Battalions and regimental artillery battalion. USSURI MARU carries the 2nd Battalion.

28 January 1944:
Arrives at Takao.

29 January 1944:
Departs Takao.

15 February 1944:
Arrives at Singapore.

16 February 1944:
Departs Singapore.

21 February 1944:
Arrives at Jakarta.

22 February 1944:
Arrives at Surabaya.

29 February 1944:
Arrives at Jakarta.

6 April 1944:
Off Takao. ARABIA MARU is damaged by a mine. Thereafter, most probably undergoes repairs.

25 April 1944:
Arrives at Osaka.

26 April 1944:
Departs Osaka.

9 June 1944:
Arrives at Fusan (Pusan), Chosen (Korea).

11 June 1944:
Departs Fusan.

12 June 1944:
Arrives at Ujina.

15 June 1944:
Departs Ujina.

17 June 1944:
Arrives at Fusan.

19 June 1944:
Departs Fusan.

20 June 1944:
Arrives at Moji.

1 July 1944:
Departs Moji.

15 July 1944:
Arrives at Manila.

23 July 1944:
At 1545, ARABIA MARU departs Manila for Moji in convoy MI-08 also consisting of MIZUHO, MANILA, TATSUBATO and HAKUSHIKA MARUs and tankers SAN DIEGO, SAN LUIS, NITTETSU, MIRII, CHIHAYA, RYUSHO and SANKO MARUs and KYOEI MARU No. 6 escorted by torpedo boat SAGI, kaibokan CD-1, CD-18 and CD-28, minesweeper W-17, minelayer ENOSHIMA and subchaser CH-61. The convoy speed is eight knots.

27 July 1944:
At 0920, auxiliary subchaser CHa-74 and auxiliary transport OYO MARU join the escort. At 1605, the convoy arrives at Takao and is again reorganized.

30 July 1944:
At 1800, ARABIA MARU departs Takao that now consists of ZUIHO, CHIHAYA, SAN DIEGO, SAN LUIS, BOKO (ex British SAGRES), MANILA, SANKO, TSUYAMA, RYUSHO, MIRII, TATSUBATO, NITTETSU, YAGI, TOUN and EIHO MARUs escorted by torpedo-boat SAGI, kaibokan CD-1 and CD-18, minesweeper W-17 and auxiliary netlayer KISHIN MARU. The convoy speed is 7 knots.

1 August 1944:
At 1400, the convoy arrives at Kirun (Keelung) after it is suspected that enemy submarines had gained contact.

4 August 1944:
At 1600, the convoy departs Kirun and heads up the Ryukyu Islands bound for the Kyushu.

9 August 1944:
N of Okinoshima. LtCdr (later Cdr) Robert A. Keating's (USNA ’33) USS BARBEL (SS-316) torpedoes and sinks IJA cargo ship YAGI MARU with three Gunners and 31 crewmen KIA and merchant cargo ship BOKO MARU (ex-British SAGRES) with unknown casualties at 27-56N, 128-47E. W-17 and CD-1 carry out an anti-submarine sweep and drop 21 depth charges that cause some damage to BARBEL.

Afterwards, the convoy heads out of the area at full speed making evasive movements. At 1200, the convoy arrives at Koniya, Amami-O-Shima, Ryukyus.

11 August 1944:
At 0400, the convoy departs Amami-O-Shima.

13 August 1944:
Arrives at Moji.

25 August 1944:
Departs Moji and arrives at the Terashima Straits. Later that day, ARABIA MARU and transports MIZUHO and KOKURYU MARUs and tanker MANEI MARU briefly join convoy HI-73 consisting of IJA Landing craft depot ship KIBITSU MARU, ex-armed merchant cruiser GOKOKU MARU, ex-seaplane tenders KAGU and SANUKI MARUs, tankers TOHO, OMUROSAN, OTOWASAN, TAIHO, FUJISAN, HAKKO, AMATO, TOA and KUROSHIO MARUs and fleet storeship IRAKO escorted by escort carrier UNYO, light cruiser KASHII and kaibokan CHIBURI, CD-1, CD-13, CD-19, CD-27 and CD-21.

26 August 1944:
At 0900, ARABIA. MIZUHO and KOKURYU MARUs are ordered away because of excessive smoke. MANEI MARU remains at Kyushu because of engine problems.

31 August 1944:
At 0400, ARABIA MARU departs Terashima Straits for Takao in convoy MOTA-25 also consisting of MIZUHO and KOKURYU MARUs escorted by kaibokan CD-1, CD-3 and CD-5.

3 September 1944:
At 1630, arrives at Kirun rather than Takao as ordered by the convoy commander.

18 September 1944:
At 2056, ARABIA MARU departs Takao in convoy TAMA-26 also consisting of MIZHUO, SHIRANESAN, EIMAN, TEMPI, AWAJI, NICHINAN and HOTEN MARUs and TOYO MARU No. 3 escorted by minesweepers W-18 and W-19 and subchasers CH-41 and CH-63. That same day, TAMA-26 anchors off Daibanratsu (Ta-fan-lieh), Nan Wan (South Bay), southern end of Taiwan.

19 September 1944:
Departs Daibanratsu. At 2130, convoy TAMA-26 anchors at Sabtang Channel.

20 September 1944:
At 0300, departs Sabtang Channel. At 2000, the convoy anchors at Fuga Island, Musa Bay.

21 September 1944:
At 2215, the convoy arrives at Lapoc Bay, Philippines.

26 September 1944:
At 1645, the convoy arrives San Fernando, Philippines. Departs later the same night.

29 September 1944:
Arrives at Santa Cruz. Departs later the same day.

1 October 1944:
At 2056, convoy TAMA-26 arrives at Manila.

17 October 1944:
Manila. Japanese naval authorities, fearing another air attack by Vice Admiral (Admiral, posthumously) John S. McCain's (USNA '06) Task Force 38, order a number of ships out of Manila to relieve congestion in the harbor.

At 1820, ARABIA MARU departs Manila in the "Taihi" (Refugee) convoy also consisting of MANILA, DAIMEI. EIMAN, TEIFU, DAIIKU, KENEI, SHIRANESAN, ARABIA, SHINSEI and TAIKAI MARUs and NICHIYU MARU No. 2 and tanker KYOEI MARU No. 6 escorted by destroyer SHIOKAZE, torpedo boat HIYODORI, subchaser CH-21 and auxiliary gunboat KAZAN (HUASHAN) MARU. ARABIA MARU carries 2,635 persons including 1,870 troops of the IJA's 49th Division's 153rd Infantry Regiment, 49th Cavalry Regiment, 49th Mountain Gun Regiment, Signal Unit, Ordnance Duty Unit and 1st Field Hospital., 765 passengers, 30 horses, 500 cubic maters of aircraft parts and 550 cubic maters of oil pipes.

18 October 1944:
South China Sea, WSW of Manila. 25 km NW of Lubang Island. At 0716, LtCdr (later Captain) Eric L. Barr's (USNA '34) USS BLUEGILL (SS-242) torpedoes ARABIA MARU. Hit in the engine room and No. 4 hold, she takes on water and slowly settles. CH-21 attends her joined by patrol boat PB-104 and HAKKO MARU from a separate small convoy.

At 1208, BLUEGILL torpedoes ARABIA MARU again. Hit in the bow and No. 2 hold, she rolls over and sinks at 14-04N, 119-52. Captain Tsuda, 36 crew and 1,708 troops and passengers are KIA.

After rescuing survivors, patrol boat PB-104 and HAKKO MARU return to Manila. CH-21 remains with the convoy. [4]

At 2210, LtCdr Maurice W. Shea's (USNA '37) USS RATON (SS-270) attacks the convoy at 12-30N, 119-10E. RATON torpedoes and sinks SHIRANESAN MARU 1,318 troops, 47 gunners and 63 crewmen are KIA. RATON torpedoes and sinks TAIKAI MARU. 445 troops and 101 crewmen and gunners are KIA.

Barr's BLUEGILL also torpedoes and sinks salvage aship CHINZEI MARU and already damaged merchant cargo ship HAKUSHIKA MARU at 14-06N, 119-40E.

Authors’ Notes:
[1] Three quarters of all Japanese prewar immigrants to Brazil arrived between 1925 and 1935, while Japan was preparing for its military and territorial expansion in East Asia. In 1933, immigrants from Japan numbered 24,494 or 53.2 percent of all immigrants entering Brazil that year. In the late 1930s, the number of Japanese immigrants to Brazil sharply declined as Japanese emigration headed to Manchuria, China, and Korea.

[2] Iva Ikoku Toguri left the U.S.A. without a passport. The State Department issued her ia Certificate of Identification which it said was sufficient to get her to and from Japan. When she applied to return to the U.S.A in Nov '41, she was refused because there was no evidence that she was an American citizen. When war broke out on 8 Dec following the attack on Pearl Harbor, she was stranded in Japan. Reluctantly, she agreed to broadcast for Radio Tokyo. GI's in the Pacific dubbed her "Tokyo Rose" After the war, she was taken into custody and brought to trial. On 6 Oct 1949, Iva Ikoku Toguri was sentenced to 10 years in prison and fined $10,000. She served less than half that time and was pardoned by President Gerald Ford.

[3] There is no known official record that ARABIA MARU was ever re-rated to an ordinary transport. On the other hand, during the later stage of her career she was definitely employed as a troop carrier.

[4] A Japanese source says 1,782 men were KIA.

Thanks go to the late John Whitman. Thanks also go to Allan Alsleben for info in Rev 1.

Bob Hackett and Erich Muehlthaler

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